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  1. Many skeletal muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), and sarcopenia share the dysregulation of calcium (Ca2+) as a key mechanism of disease at a cellular level. Cytosolic concentrations of Ca2+ can signal dysregulation in organelles including the mitochondria, nucleus, and sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle. In this work, a treatment is applied to mimic the Ca2+ increase associated with these atrophy-related disease states, and broadband impedance measurements are taken for single cells with and without this treatment using a microfluidic device. The resulting impedance measurements are fitted using a single-shell circuit simulation to show calculated electrical dielectric property contributions based on these Ca2+ changes. From this, similar distributions were seen in the Ca2+ from fluorescence measurements and the distribution of the S-parameter at a single frequency, identifying Ca2+ as the main contributor to the electrical differences being identified. Extracted dielectric parameters also showed different distribution patterns between the untreated and ionomycin-treated groups; however, the overall electrical parameters suggest the impact of Ca2+-induced changes at a wider range of frequencies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Particles beyond the Standard Model (SM) can generically have lifetimes that are long compared to SM particles at the weak scale. When produced at experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, these long-lived particles (LLPs) can decay far from the interaction vertex of the primary proton–proton collision. Such LLP signatures are distinct from those of promptly decaying particles that are targeted by the majority of searches for new physics at the LHC, often requiring customized techniques to identify, for example, significantly displaced decay vertices, tracks with atypical properties, and short track segments. Given their non-standard nature, a comprehensive overview of LLP signatures at the LHC is beneficial to ensure that possible avenues of the discovery of new physics are not overlooked. Here we report on the joint work of a community of theorists and experimentalists with the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments—as well as those working on dedicated experiments such as MoEDAL, milliQan, MATHUSLA, CODEX-b, and FASER—to survey the current state of LLP searches at the LHC, and to chart a path for the development of LLP searches into the future, both in the upcoming Run 3 and at the high-luminosity LHC. The work is organized around the current and future potential capabilities of LHC experiments to generally discover new LLPs, and takes a signature-based approach to surveying classes of models that give rise to LLPs rather than emphasizing any particular theory motivation. We develop a set of simplified models; assess the coverage of current searches; document known, often unexpected backgrounds; explore the capabilities of proposed detector upgrades; provide recommendations for the presentation of search results; and look towards the newest frontiers, namely high-multiplicity ‘dark showers’, highlighting opportunities for expanding the LHC reach for these signals.

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