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Creators/Authors contains: "Faskowitz, Joshua"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 15, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Intelligence describes the general cognitive ability level of a person. It is one of the most fundamental concepts in psychological science and is crucial for the effective adaption of behavior to varying environmental demands. Changing external task demands have been shown to induce reconfiguration of functional brain networks. However, whether neural reconfiguration between different tasks is associated with intelligence has not yet been investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 812 subjects to show that higher scores of general intelligence are related to less brain network reconfiguration between resting state and seven different task states as well as to network reconfiguration between tasks. This association holds for all functional brain networks except the motor system and replicates in two independent samples (n = 138 and n = 184). Our findings suggest that the intrinsic network architecture of individuals with higher intelligence scores is closer to the network architecture as required by various cognitive demands. Multitask brain network reconfiguration may, therefore, represent a neural reflection of the behavioral positive manifold – the essence of the concept of general intelligence. Finally, our results support neural efficiency theories of cognitive ability and reveal insights into human intelligence as an emergentmore »property from a distributed multitask brain network.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 4, 2023
  6. Abstract Functional connectivity (FC) describes the statistical dependence between neuronal populations or brain regions in resting-state fMRI studies and is commonly estimated as the Pearson correlation of time courses. Clustering or community detection reveals densely coupled sets of regions constituting resting-state networks or functional systems. These systems manifest most clearly when FC is sampled over longer epochs but appear to fluctuate on shorter timescales. Here, we propose a new approach to reveal temporal fluctuations in neuronal time series. Unwrapping FC signal correlations yields pairwise co-fluctuation time series, one for each node pair or edge, and allows tracking of fine-scale dynamics across the network. Co-fluctuations partition the network, at each time step, into exactly two communities. Sampled over time, the overlay of these bipartitions, a binary decomposition of the original time series, very closely approximates functional connectivity. Bipartitions exhibit characteristic spatiotemporal patterns that are reproducible across participants and imaging runs, capture individual differences, and disclose fine-scale temporal expression of functional systems. Our findings document that functional systems appear transiently and intermittently, and that FC results from the overlay of many variable instances of system expression. Potential applications of this decomposition of functional connectivity into a set of binary patterns are discussed.
  7. Abstract

    We describe a dataset of processed data with associated reproducible preprocessing pipeline collected from two collegiate athlete groups and one non-athlete group. The dataset shares minimally processed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data, three models of the diffusion signal in the voxel, full-brain tractograms, segmentation of the major white matter tracts as well as structural connectivity matrices. There is currently a paucity of similar datasets openly shared. Furthermore, major challenges are associated with collecting this type of data. The data and derivatives shared here can be used as a reference to study the effects of long-term exposure to collegiate athletics, such as the effects of repetitive head impacts. We use advanced anatomical and dMRI data processing methods publicly available as reproducible web services at