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  1. Epitaxial growth of κ-phase Ga 2 O 3 thin films is investigated on c-plane sapphire, GaN- and AlN-on-sapphire, and (100) oriented yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The structural and surface morphological properties are investigated by comprehensive material characterization. Phase pure κ-Ga 2 O 3 films are successfully grown on GaN-, AlN-on-sapphire, and YSZ substrates through a systematical tuning of growth parameters including the precursor molar flow rates, chamber pressure, and growth temperature, whereas the growth on c-sapphire substrates leads to a mixture of β- and κ-polymorphs of Ga 2 O 3 under the investigated growth conditions. The influence of the crystalline structure, surface morphology, and roughness of κ-Ga 2 O 3 films grown on different substrates are investigated as a function of precursor flow rate. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of κ-Ga 2 O 3 films reveals abrupt interfaces between the epitaxial film and the sapphire, GaN, and YSZ substrates. The growth of single crystal orthorhombic κ-Ga 2 O 3 films is confirmed by analyzing the scanning transmission electron microscopy nanodiffraction pattern. The chemical composition, surface stoichiometry, and bandgap energies of κ-Ga 2 O 3 thin films grown on different substrates are studied bymore »high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The type-II (staggered) band alignments at three interfaces between κ-Ga 2 O 3 and c-sapphire, AlN, and YSZ substrates are determined by XPS, with an exception of κ-Ga 2 O 3 /GaN interface, which shows type-I (straddling) band alignment.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. In this work, β-Ga 2 O 3 fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown epitaxial Si-doped channel layer on (010) semi-insulating β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates are demonstrated. β-Ga 2 O 3 fin channels with smooth sidewalls are produced by the plasma-free metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) method. A specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) of 6.5 mΩ·cm 2 and a 370 V breakdown voltage are achieved. In addition, these MacEtch-formed FinFETs demonstrate DC transfer characteristics with near zero (9.7 mV) hysteresis. The effect of channel orientation on threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, hysteresis, and breakdown voltages is also characterized. The FinFET with channel perpendicular to the [102] direction is found to exhibit the lowest subthreshold swing and hysteresis.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  4. In this work, the structural and electrical properties of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited Si-doped β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin films grown on (010) β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates are investigated as a function of Al composition. The room temperature Hall mobility of 101 cm 2 /V s and low temperature peak mobility (T = 65 K) of 1157 cm 2 /V s at carrier concentrations of 6.56 × 10 17 and 2.30 × 10 17  cm −3 are measured from 6% Al composition samples, respectively. The quantitative secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) characterization reveals a strong dependence of Si and other unintentional impurities, such as C, H, and Cl concentrations in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin films, with different Al compositions. Higher Al compositions in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 result in lower net carrier concentrations due to the reduction of Si incorporation efficiency and the increase of C and H impurity levels that act as compensating acceptors in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films. Lowering the growth chamber pressure reduces Si concentrations in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films due to the increase of Al compositions as evidenced by comprehensive SIMS and Hallmore »characterizations. Due to the increase of lattice mismatch between the epifilm and substrate, higher Al compositions lead to cracking in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films grown on β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates. The (100) cleavage plane is identified as a major cracking plane limiting the growth of high-quality Si-doped (010) β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films beyond the critical thicknesses, which leads to highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous behaviors in terms of conductivity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 14, 2023
  5. In this paper, we demonstrated large-size free-standing single-crystal β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs fabricated by the hydrogen implantation and lift-off process directly from MOCVD grown β-Ga 2 O 3 epifilms on native substrates. The optimum implantation conditions were simulated with a Monte-Carlo simulation method to obtain a high hydrogen concentration with a narrow ion distribution at the desired depth. Two as grown β-Ga 2 O 3 samples with different orientations ([100] and [001]) were used to successfully create 1.2 μm thick β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs without any physical damage. These β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs were then transfer-printed onto rigid and flexible substrates such as SiC and polyimide substrates. Various material characterization studies were performed to investigate their crystal quality, surface morphologies, optical properties, mechanical properties, and bandgaps before and after the lift-off and revealed that the good material quality was maintained. This result offers several benefits in that the thickness, doping, and size of β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs can be fully controlled. Moreover, more advanced β-Ga 2 O 3 -based NM structures such as (Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 /Ga 2 O 3 heterostructure NMs can be directly created from their bulk epitaxy substrates;more »thus this study provides a viable route for the realization of high performance β-Ga 2 O 3 NM-based electronics and optoelectronics that can be built on various substrates and platforms.« less