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  1. Abstract

    Following Shin et al. (2023b), which is a part of the “Systematic KMTNet Planetary Anomaly Search” series (i.e., a search for planets in the 2016 KMTNet prime fields), we conduct a systematic search of the 2016 KMTNet subprime fields using a semi-machine-based algorithm to identify hidden anomalous events missed by the conventional by-eye search. We find four new planets and seven planet candidates that were buried in the KMTNet archive. The new planets are OGLE-2016-BLG-1598Lb, OGLE-2016-BLG-1800Lb, MOA-2016-BLG-526Lb, and KMT-2016-BLG-2321Lb, which show typical properties of microlensing planets, i.e., giant planets orbit M-dwarf host stars beyond their snow lines. For the planet candidates, we find planet/binary or 2L1S/1L2S degeneracies, which are an obstacle to firmly claiming planet detections. By combining the results of Shin et al. (2023b) and this work, we find a total of nine hidden planets, which is about half the number of planets discovered by eye in 2016. With this work, we have met the goal of the systematic search series for 2016, which is to build a complete microlensing planet sample. We also show that our systematic searches significantly contribute to completing the planet sample, especially for planet/host mass ratios smaller than 10−3, which were incomplete in previous by-eye searches of the KMTNet archive.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    In this work, we update and develop algorithms for KMTNet tender-love care (TLC) photometry in order to create a new, mostly automated, TLC pipeline. We then start a project to systematically apply the new TLC pipeline to the historic KMTNet microlensing events, and search for buried planetary signals. We report the discovery of such a planet candidate in the microlensing event MOA-2019-BLG-421/KMT-2019-BLG-2991. The anomalous signal can be explained by either a planet around the lens star or the orbital motion of the source star. For the planetary interpretation, despite many degenerate solutions, the planet is most likely to be a Jovian planet orbiting an M or K dwarf, which is a typical microlensing planet. The discovery proves that the project can indeed increase the sensitivity of historic events and find previously undiscovered signals.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT We present the observations and analysis of a high-magnification microlensing planetary event, KMT-2022-BLG-0440, for which the weak and short-lived planetary signal was covered by both the KMTNet survey and follow-up observations. The binary-lens models with a central caustic provide the best fits, with a planet/host mass ratio, q = 0.75–1.00 × 10−4 at 1σ. The binary-lens models with a resonant caustic and a brown-dwarf mass ratio are both excluded by Δχ2 > 70. The binary-source model can fit the anomaly well but is rejected by the ‘colour argument’ on the second source. From Bayesian analyses, it is estimated that the host star is likely a K or M dwarf located in the Galactic disc, the planet probably has a Neptune-mass, and the projected planet-host separation is $1.9^{+0.6}_{-0.7}$ or $4.6^{+1.4}_{-1.7}$  au, subject to the close/wide degeneracy. This is the third q < 10−4 planet from a high-magnification planetary signal (A ≳ 65). Together with another such planet, KMT-2021-BLG-0171Lb, the ongoing follow-up program for the KMTNet high-magnification events has demonstrated its ability to detect high-magnification planetary signals for q < 10−4 planets, which are challenging for the current microlensing surveys. 
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  4. Abstract This supplement provides supporting material for Lam et al. We briefly summarize past gravitational microlensing searches for black holes (BHs) and present details of the observations, analysis, and modeling of five BH candidates observed with both ground-based photometric microlensing surveys and Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and photometry. We present detailed results for four of the five candidates that show no or low probability for the lens to be a BH. In these cases, the lens masses are <2 M ⊙ , and two of the four are likely white dwarfs or neutron stars. We also present detailed methods for comparing the full sample of five candidates to theoretical expectations of the number of BHs in the Milky Way (∼10 8 ). 
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  5. Abstract We analyze the MOA-2020-BLG-208 gravitational microlensing event and present the discovery and characterization of a new planet, MOA-2020-BLG-208Lb, with an estimated sub-Saturn mass. With a mass ratio q = 3.17 − 0.26 + 0.28 × 10 − 4 , the planet lies near the peak of the mass-ratio function derived by the MOA collaboration and near the edge of expected sample sensitivity. For these estimates we provide results using two mass-law priors: one assuming that all stars have an equal planet-hosting probability, and the other assuming that planets are more likely to orbit around more massive stars. In the first scenario, we estimate that the lens system is likely to be a planet of mass m planet = 46 − 24 + 42 M ⊕ and a host star of mass M host = 0.43 − 0.23 + 0.39 M ⊙ , located at a distance D L = 7.49 − 1.13 + 0.99 kpc . For the second scenario, we estimate m planet = 69 − 34 + 37 M ⊕ , M host = 0.66 − 0.32 + 0.35 M ⊙ , and D L = 7.81 − 0.93 + 0.93 kpc . The planet has a projected separation as a fraction of the Einstein ring radius s = 1.3807 − 0.0018 + 0.0018 . As a cool sub-Saturn-mass planet, this planet adds to a growing collection of evidence for revised planetary formation models. 
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  6. Abstract

    As a part of the “Systematic KMTNet Planetary Anomaly Search” series, we report five new planets (namely, OGLE-2016-BLG-1635Lb, MOA-2016-BLG-532Lb, KMT-2016-BLG-0625Lb, OGLE-2016-BLG-1850Lb, and KMT-2016-BLG-1751Lb) and one planet candidate (KMT-2016-BLG-1855), which were found by searching 2016 KMTNet prime fields. Theseburiedplanets show a wide range of masses from Earth-class to super-Jupiter-class and are located in both the disk and the bulge. The ultimate goal of this series is to build a complete planet sample. Because our work provides a complementary sample to other planet detection methods, which have different detection sensitivities, our complete sample will help us to obtain a better understanding of planet demographics in our Galaxy.

     
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  7. Aims. The high-magnification microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-1077 exhibits a subtle and complex anomaly pattern in the region around the peak. We analyze the lensing light curve of the event with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomaly. Methods. We test various models in combination with several interpretations: that the lens is a binary (2L1S), the source is a binary (1L2S), both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S), or the lens is a triple system (3L1S). We search for the best-fit models under the individual interpretations of the lens and source systems. Results. We find that the anomaly cannot be explained by the usual three-body (2L1S and 1L2S) models. The 2L2S model improves the fit compared to the three-body models, but it still leaves noticeable residuals. On the other hand, the 3L1S interpretation yields a model explaining all the major anomalous features in the lensing light curve. According to the 3L1S interpretation, the estimated mass ratios of the lens companions to the primary are ~1.56 × 10 −3 and ~1.75 × 10 −3 , which correspond to ~1.6 and ~1.8 times the Jupiter/Sun mass ratio, respectively, and therefore the lens is a multiplanetary system containing two giant planets. With the constraints of the event time-scale and angular Einstein radius, it is found that the host of the lens system is a low-mass star of mid-to-late M spectral type with amass of M h = 0.14 −0.07 +0.19 M Θ , and it hosts two gas giant planets with masses of M p1 = 0.22 −0.12 +0.31 M J and M p2 = 0.25 −0.13 +0.35 . The planets lie beyond the snow line of the host with projected separations of a ⊥,p1 = 1.26 −1.08 +1.41 AU and a ⊥,p2 = 0.93 −0.80 +1.05 AU. The planetary system resides in the Galactic bulge at a distance of D L = 8.24 −1.16 +1.02 kpc. The lens of the event is the fifth confirmed multiplanetary system detected by microlensing following OGLE-2006-BLG-109L, OGLE-2012-BLG-0026L, OGLE-2018-BLG-1011L, and OGLE-2019-BLG-0468L. 
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  8. Abstract

    We present the analysis of three more planets from the KMTNet 2021 microlensing season. KMT-2021-BLG-0119Lb is a ∼6MJupplanet orbiting an early M dwarf or a K dwarf, KMT-2021-BLG-0192Lb is a ∼2MNepplanet orbiting an M dwarf, and KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is a ∼1.25MNepplanet orbiting a very-low-mass M dwarf or a brown dwarf. These by-eye planet detections provide an important comparison sample to the sample selected with the AnomalyFinder algorithm, and in particular, KMT-2021-BLG-2294 is a case of a planet detected by eye but not by algorithm. KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is part of a population of microlensing planets around very-low-mass host stars that spans the full range of planet masses, in contrast to the planet population at ≲0.1 au, which shows a strong preference for small planets.

     
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  9. Aims. With the aim of finding short-term planetary signals, we investigated the data collected from current high-cadence microlensing surveys. Methods. From this investigation, we found four planetary systems with low planet-to-host mass ratios, including OGLE-2017-BLG-1691L, KMT-2021-BLG-0320L, KMT-2021-BLG-1303L, and KMT-2021-BLG-1554L. Despite the short durations, ranging from a few hours to a couple of days, the planetary signals were clearly detected by the combined data of the lensing surveys. We found that three of the planetary systems have mass ratios on the order of 10 −4 and the other has a mass ratio that is slightly greater than 10 −3 . Results. The estimated masses indicate that all discovered planets have sub-Jovian masses. The planet masses of KMT-2021-BLG-0320Lb, KMT-2021-BLG-1303Lb, and KMT-2021-BLG-1554Lb correspond to ~0.10, ~0.38, and ~0.12 times the mass of the Jupiter, and the mass of OGLE-2017-BLG-1691Lb corresponds to that of the Uranus. The estimated mass of the planet host KMT-2021-BLG-1554L, M host ~ 0.08 M ⊙ , corresponds to the boundary between a star and a brown dwarf. Besides this system, the host stars of the other planetary systems are low-mass stars with masses in the range of ~[0.3–0.6] M ⊙ . The discoveries of the planets fully demonstrate the capability of the current high-cadence microlensing surveys in detecting low-mass planets. 
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  10. Abstract

    We present an analysis of microlensing event OGLE-2019-BLG-0825. This event was identified as a planetary candidate by preliminary modeling. We find that significant residuals from the best-fit static binary-lens model exist and a xallarap effect can fit the residuals very well and significantly improvesχ2values. On the other hand, by including the xallarap effect in our models, we find that binary-lens parameters such as mass ratio,q, and separation,s, cannot be constrained well. However, we also find that the parameters for the source system such as the orbital period and semimajor axis are consistent between all the models we analyzed. We therefore constrain the properties of the source system better than the properties of the lens system. The source system comprises a G-type main-sequence star orbited by a brown dwarf with a period ofP∼ 5 days. This analysis is the first to demonstrate that the xallarap effect does affect binary-lens parameters in planetary events. It would not be common for the presence or absence of the xallarap effect to affect lens parameters in events with long orbital periods of the source system or events with transits to caustics, but in other cases, such as this event, the xallarap effect can affect binary-lens parameters.

     
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