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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Scalable programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs) can potentially transform the current state of classical and quantum optical information processing. However, traditional means of programming, including thermo-optic, free carrier dispersion, and Pockels effect result in either large device footprints or high static energy consumptions, significantly limiting their scalability. While chalcogenide-based non-volatile phase-change materials (PCMs) could mitigate these problems thanks to their strong index modulation and zero static power consumption, they often suffer from large absorptive loss, low cyclability, and lack of multilevel operation. Here, we report a wide-bandgap PCM antimony sulfide (Sb2S3)-clad silicon photonic platform simultaneously achieving low loss (<1.0 dB), high extinction ratio (>10 dB), high cyclability (>1600 switching events), and 5-bit operation. These Sb2S3-based devices are programmed via on-chip silicon PIN diode heaters within sub-ms timescale, with a programming energy density of$$\sim 10\,{fJ}/n{m}^{3}$$~10fJ/nm3. Remarkably, Sb2S3is programmed into fine intermediate states by applying multiple identical pulses, providing controllable multilevel operations. Through dynamic pulse control, we achieve 5-bit (32 levels) operations, rendering 0.50 ± 0.16 dB per step. Using this multilevel behavior, we further trim random phase error in a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. We report a hybrid phase-change mateial Sb2S3-silicon photonic tunable directional coupler, which exhibits low insertion loss (< 1.0 dB), large extinction ratio (> 10 dB), high endurance (> 1,600 switching events), and 32 operation levels.

     
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  4. 3D photonics promises to expand the reach of photonics by enabling the extension of traditional applications to nonplanar geometries and adding novel functionalities that cannot be attained with planar devices. Available material options and device geometries are, however, limited by current fabrication methods. In this work, we pioneer a method that allows for placement of integrated photonic device arrays at arbitrary predefined locations in 3D using a fabrication process that capitalizes on the buckling of a 2D pattern. We present theoretical and experimental validation of the deterministic buckling process, thus demonstrating implementation of the technique to realize what we believe to be the first fully packaged 3D integrated photonics platform. Application of the platform for mechanical strain sensing is further demonstrated.

     
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  5. Owing to their unique tunable optical properties, chalcogenide phase change materials are increasingly being investigated for optics and photonics applications. However, in situ characterization of their phase transition characteristics is a capability that remains inaccessible to many researchers. Herein, a multifunctional silicon microheater platform capable of in situ measurement of structural, kinetic, optical, and thermal properties of these materials is introduced. The platform can be fabricated leveraging industry‐standard silicon foundry manufacturing processes. This platform is fully open‐sourced, including complete hardware design and associated software codes.

     
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