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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Abstract We study stationary free boundary configurations of an ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic fluid possessing nested flux surfaces. In 2D simply connected domains, we prove that if the magnetic field and velocity field are never commensurate, the only possible domain for any such equilibria is a disk, and the velocity and magnetic field are circular. We give examples of non-symmetric equilibria occupying a domain of any shape by imposing an external magnetic field generated by a singular current sheet charge distribution (external coils). Some results carry over to 3D axisymmetric solutions. These results highlight the importance of external magnetic fields for the existence of asymmetric equilibria. 
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    We construct smooth, non-symmetric plasma equilibria which possess closed, nested flux surfaces and solve the magnetohydrostatic (steady three-dimensional incompressible Euler) equations with a small force. The solutions are also ‘nearly’ quasisymmetric. The primary idea is, given a desired quasisymmetry direction $\xi$ , to change the smooth structure on space so that the vector field $\xi$ is Killing for the new metric and construct $\xi$ –symmetric solutions of the magnetohydrostatic equations on that background by solving a generalized Grad–Shafranov equation. If $\xi$ is close to a symmetry of Euclidean space, then these are solutions on flat space up to a small forcing. 
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