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  1. Abstract Molecular lines tracing the orbital motion of gas in a well-defined disk are valuable tools for inferring both the properties of the disk and the star it surrounds. Lines that arise only from a disk, and not also from the surrounding molecular cloud core that birthed the star or from the outflow it drives, are rare. Several such emission lines have recently been discovered in one example case, those from NaCl and KCl salt molecules. We studied a sample of 23 candidate high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs) in 17 high-mass star-forming regions to determine how frequently emission from these species is detected. We present five new detections of water, NaCl, KCl, PN, and SiS from the innermost regions around the objects, bringing the total number of known briny disk candidates to nine. Their kinematic structure is generally disk-like, though we are unable to determine whether they arise from a disk or outflow in the sources with new detections. We demonstrate that these species are spatially coincident in a few resolved cases and show that they are generally detected together, suggesting a common origin or excitation mechanism. We also show that several disks around HMYSOs clearly do not exhibit emissionmore »in these species. Salty disks are therefore neither particularly rare in high-mass disks, nor are they ubiquitous.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Abstract We present high-resolution (∼2–3″; ∼0.1 pc) radio observations of the Galactic center cloud M0.10−0.08 using the Very Large Array at K and Ka band (∼25 and 36 GHz). The M0.10−0.08 cloud is located in a complex environment near the Galactic center Radio Arc and the adjacent M0.11−0.11 molecular cloud. From our data, M0.10−0.08 appears to be a compact molecular cloud (∼3 pc) that contains multiple compact molecular cores (5+; <0.4 pc). In this study, we detect a total of 15 molecular transitions in M0.10−0.08 from the following molecules: NH 3 , HC 3 N, CH 3 OH, HC 5 N, CH 3 CN, and OCS. We have identified more than sixty 36 GHz CH 3 OH masers in M0.10−0.08 with brightness temperatures above 400 K and 31 maser candidates with temperatures between 100 and 400 K. We conduct a kinematic analysis of the gas using NH 3 and detect multiple velocity components toward this region of the Galactic center. The bulk of the gas in this region has a velocity of 51.5 km s −1 (M0.10−0.08) with a lower-velocity wing at 37.6 km s −1 . We also detect a relatively faint velocity component at 10.6 km s −1more »that we attribute to being an extension of the M0.11−0.11 cloud. Analysis of the gas kinematics, combined with past X-ray fluorescence observations, suggests M0.10−0.08 and M0.11−0.11 are located in the same vicinity of the Galactic center and could be physically interacting.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT We study the formation, evolution, and collapse of dense cores by tracking structures in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a star-forming cloud. We identify cores using the dendrogram algorithm and utilize machine learning techniques, including Neural Gas prototype learning and Fuzzy c-means clustering to analyse the density and velocity dispersion profiles of cores together with six bulk properties. We produce a 2-d visualization using a Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP), which facilitates the connection between physical properties and three partially-overlapping phases: i) unbound turbulent structures (Phase I), ii) coherent cores that have low turbulence (Phase II), and iii) bound cores, many of which become protostellar (Phase III). Within Phase II, we identify a population of long-lived coherent cores that reach a quasi-equilibrium state. Most prestellar cores form in Phase II and become protostellar after evolving into Phase III. Due to the turbulent cloud environment, the initial core properties do not uniquely predict the eventual evolution, i.e. core evolution is stochastic, and cores follow no one evolutionary path. The phase lifetimes are 1.0 ± 0.1 × 105 yr, 1.3 ± 0.2 × 105 yr, and 1.8 ± 0.3 × 105 yr for Phase I, II, and III, respectively. We compare our results to NH3 observations of dense cores. Known coherent cores predominantly map into Phasemore »II, while most turbulent pressure-confined cores map to Phase I or III. We predict that a significant fraction of observed starless cores have unresolved coherent regions and that ≳20 per cent of observed starless cores will not form stars. Measurements of core radial profiles in addition to the usual bulk properties will enable more accurate predictions of core evolution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 7, 2023
  4. Abstract

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations with a 800 au resolution and radiative-transfer modeling of the inner part (r≈ 6000 au) of the ionized accretion flow around a compact star cluster in formation at the center of the luminous ultracompact Hiiregion G10.6-0.4. We modeled the flow with an ionized Keplerian disk with and without radial motions in its outer part, or with an external Ulrich envelope. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo fits to the data give total stellar massesMfrom 120 to 200M, with much smaller ionized-gas massesMion-gas= 0.2–0.25M. The stellar mass is distributed within the gravitational radiusRg≈ 1000 to 1500 au, where the ionized gas is bound. The viewing inclination angle from the face-on orientation isi= 49°–56°. Radial motions at radiir>Rgconverge tovr,0≈ 8.7 km s−1, or about the speed of sound of ionized gas, indicating that this gas is marginally unbound at most. From additional constraints on the ionizing-photon rate and far-IR luminosity of the region, we conclude that the stellar cluster consists of a few massive stars withMstar= 32–60M, or one star in this range of masses accompanied by a population of lower-mass stars. Any active accretion of ionized gas onto the massive (proto)stars is residual. Themore »inferred cluster density is very large, comparable to that reported at similar scales in the Galactic center. Stellar interactions are likely to occur within the next million years.

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    Filamentary structures have been found nearly ubiquitously in molecular clouds and yet their formation and evolution is still poorly understood. We examine a segment of Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) that appears as a single, narrow filament in continuum emission from dust. We use the Regularized Optimization for Hyper-Spectral Analysis (ROHSA), a Gaussian decomposition algorithm that enforces spatial coherence when fitting multiple velocity components simultaneously over a data cube. We analyse HC5N (9–8) line emission as part of the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and identify three velocity-coherent components with ROHSA. The two brightest components extend the length of the filament, while the third component is fainter and clumpier. The brightest component has a prominent transverse velocity gradient of 2.7 ± 0.1 km s−1 pc−1 that we show to be indicative of gravitationally induced inflow. In the second component, we identify regularly spaced emission peaks along its length. We show that the local minima between pairs of adjacent HC5N peaks line up closely with submillimetre continuum emission peaks, which we argue is evidence for fragmentation along the spine of TMC-1. While coherent velocity components have been described as separate physical structures in other star-forming filaments, we argue that the two bright components identified in HC5Nmore »emission in TMC-1 are tracing two layers in one filament: a lower density outer layer whose material is flowing under gravity towards the higher density inner layer of the filament.

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    We present an overview and data release of the spectral line component of the SMA Large Program, CMZoom. CMZoom observed 12CO (2–1), 13CO (2–1), and C18O (2–1), three transitions of H2CO, several transitions of CH3OH, two transitions of OCS, and single transitions of SiO and SO within gas above a column density of N(H2) ≥ 1023 cm−2 in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; inner few hundred pc of the Galaxy). We extract spectra from all compact 1.3 mm CMZoom continuum sources and fit line profiles to the spectra. We use the fit results from the H2CO 3(0, 3)–2(0, 2) transition to determine the source kinematic properties. We find ∼90 per cent of the total mass of CMZoom sources have reliable kinematics. Only four compact continuum sources are formally self-gravitating. The remainder are consistent with being in hydrostatic equilibrium assuming that they are confined by the high external pressure in the CMZ. We find only two convincing proto-stellar outflows, ruling out a previously undetected population of very massive, actively accreting YSOs with strong outflows. Finally, despite having sufficient sensitivity and resolution to detect high-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs), which have been claimed as evidence for intermediate mass black holes interacting with molecular gas clouds, we find no suchmore »objects across the large survey area.

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  7. Abstract We observed the high-mass protostellar core G335.579–0.272 ALMA1 at ∼200 au (0.″05) resolution with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 226 GHz (with a mass sensitivity of 5 σ = 0.2 M ⊙ at 10 K). We discovered that at least a binary system is forming inside this region, with an additional nearby bow-like structure (≲1000 au) that could add an additional member to the stellar system. These three sources are located at the center of the gravitational potential well of the ALMA1 region and the larger MM1 cluster. The emission from CH 3 OH (and many other tracers) is extended (>1000 au), revealing a common envelope toward the binary system. We use CH 2 CHCN line emission to estimate an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 26° with respect to the line of sight based on geometric assumptions and derive a kinematic mass of the primary source (protostar+disk) of 3.0 M ⊙ within a radius of 230 au. Using SiO emission, we find that the primary source drives the large-scale outflow revealed by previous observations. Precession of the binary system likely produces a change in orientation between the outflow at small scales observed here and largemore »scales observed in previous works. The bow structure may have originated from the entrainment of matter into the envelope due to the widening or precession of the outflow, or, alternatively, an accretion streamer dominated by the gravity of the central sources. An additional third source, forming due to instabilities in the streamer, cannot be ruled out as a temperature gradient is needed to produce the observed absorption spectra.« less
  8. Abstract Multi-epoch narrowband Hubble Space Telescope images of the bipolar H ii region Sh2-106 reveal highly supersonic nebular proper motions that increase with projected distance from the massive young stellar object S106 IR, reaching over ∼30 mas yr −1 (∼150 km s −1 at D = 1.09 kpc) at a projected separation of ∼1.′4 (0.44 pc) from S106 IR. We propose that S106 IR experienced a ∼10 47 erg explosion ∼3500 yr ago. The explosion may be the result of a major accretion burst or a recent encounter with another star, or a consequence of the interaction of a companion with the bloated photosphere of S106 IR as it grew from ∼10 through ∼15 M ⊙ at a high accretion rate. Near-IR images reveal fingers of H 2 emission pointing away from S106 IR and an asymmetric photon-dominated region surrounding the ionized nebula. Radio continuum and Br γ emission reveal a C-shaped bend in the plasma, indicating either the motion of S106 IR toward the east, or the deflection of plasma toward the west by the surrounding cloud. The H ii region bends around a ∼1′ diameter dark bay west of S106 IR that may be shielded from direct illuminationmore »by a dense molecular clump. Herbig–Haro and Molecular Hydrogen Objects tracing outflows powered by stars in the Sh2-106 protocluster such as the Class 0 source S106 FIR are discussed.« less
  9. Abstract

    pyspeckitis a toolkit and library for spectroscopic analysis in Python. We describe thepyspeckitpackage and highlight some of its capabilities, such as interactively fitting a model to data, akin to the historically widely-usedsplotfunction inIRAF.pyspeckitemploys the Levenberg–Marquardt optimization method via thempfitandlmfitimplementations, and important assumptions regarding error estimation are described here. Wrappers to usepymcandemceeas optimizers are provided. A parallelized wrapper to fit lines in spectral cubes is included. As part of theastropyaffiliated package ecosystem,pyspeckitis open source and open development, and welcomes input and collaboration from the community.

  10. Abstract This paper analyses images from 43 to 340 GHz to trace the structure of the Source I (SrcI) disk in Orion-KL with ∼12 au resolution. The data reveal an almost edge-on disk with an outside diameter ∼100 au, which is heated from the inside. The high opacity at 220–340 GHz hides the internal structure and presents a surface temperature ∼500 K. Images at 43, 86 and 99 GHz reveal structure within the disk. At 43 GHz there is bright compact emission with brightness temperature ∼1300 K. Another feature, most prominent at 99 GHz, is a warped ridge of emission. The data can be explained by a simple model with a hot inner structure, seen through cooler material. A wide-angle outflow mapped in SiO emission ablates material from the interior of the disk, and extends in a bipolar outflow over 1000 au along the rotation axis of the disk. SiO v = 0, J = 5–4 emission appears to have a localized footprint in the warped ridge. These observations suggest that the ridge is the working surface of the disk, and heated by accretion and the outflow. The disk structure may be evolving, with multiple accretion and outflow events. Wemore »discuss two sources of variability: (1) variable accretion onto the disk as SrcI travels through the filamentary debris from the Becklin–Neugebauer Object-SrcI encounter ∼550 yr ago; and (2) episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which may trigger multiple outflows. The warped inner-disk structure is direct evidence that SrcI could be a binary experiencing episodic accretion.« less