skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Hoffmann, Christina"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Diffuse scattering occurring in the Bragg diffraction pattern of a long-range-ordered structure represents local deviation from the governing regular lattice. However, interpreting the real-space structure from the diffraction pattern presents a significant challenge because of the dramatic difference in intensity between the Bragg and diffuse components of the total scattering function. In contrast to the sharp Bragg diffraction, the diffuse signal has generally been considered to be a weak expansive or continuous background signal. Herein, using 1D and 2D models, it is demonstrated that diffuse scattering in fact consists of a complex array of high-frequency features that must not be averaged into a low-frequency background signal. To evaluate the actual diffuse scattering effectively, an algorithm has been developed that uses robust statistics and traditional signal processing techniques to identify Bragg peaks as signal outliers which can be removed from the overall scattering data and then replaced by statistically valid fill values. This method, described as a `K-space algorithmic reconstruction' (KAREN), can identify Bragg reflections independent of prior knowledge of a system's unit cell. KAREN does not alter any data other than that in the immediate vicinity of the Bragg reflections, and reconstructs the diffuse component surrounding the Bragg peaks withoutmore »introducing discontinuities which induce Fourier ripples or artifacts from underfilling `punched' voids. The KAREN algorithm for reconstructing diffuse scattering provides demonstrably better resolution than can be obtained from previously described punch-and-fill methods. The superior structural resolution obtained using the KAREN method is demonstrated by evaluating the complex ordered diffuse scattering observed from the neutron diffraction of a single plastic crystal of CBr 4 using pair distribution function analysis.« less
  2. Abstract

    Quantum spin systems such as magnetic insulators usually show magnetic order, but such classical states can give way toquantum liquids with exotic entanglementthrough two known mechanisms of frustration: geometric frustration in lattices with triangle motifs, and spin-orbit-coupling frustration in the exactly solvable quantum liquid of Kitaev’s honeycomb lattice. Here we present the experimental observation of a new kind of frustrated quantum liquid arising in an unlikely place: the magnetic insulator Ba4Ir3O10where Ir3O12trimers form an unfrustrated square lattice. The crystal structure shows no apparent spin chains. Experimentally we find a quantum liquid state persisting down to 0.2 K that is stabilized by strong antiferromagnetic interaction with Curie–Weiss temperature ranging from −766 to −169 K due to magnetic anisotropy. The anisotropy-averaged frustration parameter is 2000, seldom seen in iridates. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity are both linear at low temperatures, a familiar feature in metals but here in an insulator pointing to an exotic quantum liquid state; a mere 2% Sr substitution for Ba produces long-range order at 130 K and destroys the linear-T features. Although the Ir4+(5d5) ions in Ba4Ir3O10appear to form Ir3O12trimers of face-sharing IrO6octahedra, we propose that intra-trimer exchange is reduced and the lattice recombines into an array of coupled 1Dmore »chains with additional spins. An extreme limit of decoupled 1D chains can explain most but not all of the striking experimental observations, indicating that the inter-chain coupling plays an important role in the frustration mechanism leading to this quantum liquid.

    « less
  3. Understanding H 2 binding and activation is important in the context of designing transition metal catalysts for many processes, including hydrogenation and the interconversion of H 2 with protons and electrons. This work reports the first thermodynamic and kinetic H 2 binding studies for an isostructural series of first-row metal complexes: NiML, where M = Al ( 1 ), Ga ( 2 ), and In ( 3 ), and L = [N( o -(NCH 2 P i Pr 2 )C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 3− . Thermodynamic free energies (Δ G °) and free energies of activation (Δ G ‡ ) for binding equilibria were obtained via variable-temperature 31 P NMR studies and lineshape analysis. The supporting metal exerts a large influence on the thermodynamic favorability of both H 2 and N 2 binding to Ni, with Δ G ° values for H 2 binding found to span nearly the entire range of previous reports. The non-classical H 2 adduct, (η 2 -H 2 )NiInL ( 3 -H 2 ), was structurally characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction—the first such study for a Ni(η 2 -H 2 ) complex or any d 10 M(η 2 -H 2 ) complex.more »UV-Vis studies and TD-DFT calculations identified specific electronic structure perturbations of the supporting metal which poise NiML complexes for small-molecule binding. ETS-NOCV calculations indicate that H 2 binding primarily occurs via H–H σ-donation to the Ni 4p z -based LUMO, which is proposed to become energetically accessible as the Ni(0)→M( iii ) dative interaction increases for the larger M( iii ) ions. Linear free-energy relationships are discussed, with the activation barrier for H 2 binding (Δ G ‡ ) found to decrease proportionally for more thermodynamically favorable equilibria. The Δ G ° values for H 2 and N 2 binding to NiML complexes were also found to be more exergonic for the larger M( iii ) ions.« less