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  7. Atmospheric cold fronts can periodically generate storm surges and affect sediment transport in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). In this paper, we evaluate water circulation spatiotemporal patterns induced by six atmospheric cold front events in the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana using the 3-D hydrodynamic model ECOM-si. Model simulations show that channelized and inter-distributary water flow is significantly impacted by cold fronts. Water volume transport throughout the deltaic channel network is not just constrained to the main channels but also occurs laterally across channels accounting for about a quarter of the total flow. Results show that a significant landward flow occurs across the delta prior to the frontal passage, resulting in a positive storm surge on the coast. The along-channel current velocity dominates while cross-channel water transport occurs at the southwest lobe during the post-frontal stage. Depending on local weather conditions, the cold-front-induced flushing event lasts for 1.7 to 7 days and can flush 32–76% of the total water mass out of the system, a greater range of variability than previous reports. The magnitude of water flushed out of the system is not necessarily dependent on the duration of the frontal events. An energy partitioning analysis showsmore »that the relative importance of subtidal energy (10–45% of the total) and tidal energy (20–70%) varies substantially from station to station and is linked to the weather impact. It is important to note that within the WLD region, the weather-induced subtidal energy (46–66% of the total) is much greater than the diurnal tidal energy (13–25% of the total). The wind associated with cold fronts in winter is the main factor controlling water circulation in the WLD and is a major driver in the spatial configuration of the channel network and delta progradation rates.« less
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  8. Electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) hold great promise for next-generation printed logic circuitry, biocompatible integrated sensors, and neuromorphic devices. However, EGT-based complementary circuits with high voltage gain and ultralow driving voltage (<0.5 V) are currently unrealized, because achieving balanced electrical output for both the p- and n-type EGT components has not been possible with current materials. Here we report high-performance EGT complementary circuits containing p-type organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) fabricated with an ion-permeable organic semiconducting polymer (DPP-g2T) and an n-type electrical double-layer transistor (EDLT) fabricated with an ion-impermeable inorganic indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) semiconductor. Adjusting the IGZO composition enables tunable EDLT output which, for In:Ga:Zn = 10:1:1 at%, balances that of the DPP-g2T OECT. The resulting hybrid electrolyte-gated inverter (HCIN) achieves ultrahigh voltage gains (>110) under a supply voltage of only 0.7 V. Furthermore, NAND and NOR logic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates are realized, enabling not only excellent logic response with driving voltages as low as 0.2 V but also impressive mechanical flexibility down to 1-mm bending radii. Finally, the HCIN was applied in electrooculographic (EOG) signal monitoring for recording eye movement, which is critical for the development of wearable medical sensors and also interfaces for human–computer interaction; the highmore »voltage amplification of the present HCIN enables EOG signal amplification and monitoring in which a small ∼1.5 mV signal is amplified to ∼30 mV.

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