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  1. This research studied the effect of channel roughness on micro-droplet distributions in internal minimum quantity lubrication for effective machining. Mixtures of different oils and air were flown though internal channels with simulated different roughness: as fabricated, partially threaded, and fully threaded. The airborne droplets were collected, analyzed, and compared with simulated results by computational fluid dynamics. For low-viscous lubricant, the rough channel surface helped to break large droplets in the boundary layer into smaller droplets and reintroduce them into the main downstream flow. The opposite trend was found for the higher viscous lubricant. The study also performed chemical etching to roughen selected surfaces of carbide cutting tools. The synergy of hand and ultrasonic agitation successfully roughened a carbide surface within twelve minutes. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed deep etching that removed all grinding marks on a WC–Co cutting tool surface. 
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  2. ABSTRACTElectro-chemical polishing (ECP) was utilized to produce sub-micron surface finish on Inconel 718 parts manufactured by Laser Powder-Bed-Fusion (L-PBF) and extrusion methods. The L-PBF parts had very rough surfaces due to semi-welded powder particles, surface defects, and difference layer steps that were generally not found on surfaces of extruded and machined components. This study compared the results of electro-polishing of these differently manufactured parts under the same conditions. Titanium electrode was used with an acid-based electrolyte to polish both the specimens at different combinations of pulsed current density, duty cycle, and polishing time. Digital 3D optical profiler was used to assess the surface finish, while optical and scanning electron microscopy was utilized to observe the microstructure of polished specimens. At optimal condition, the ECP successfully reduced the surface of L-PBF part from 17 µm to 0.25 µm; further polishing did not improve the surface finish due to different removal rates of micro-leveled pores, cracks, nonconductive phases, and carbide particles in 3D-printed Inconel 718. The microstructure of extruded materials was uniform and free of processing defects, therefore can be polished consistently to 0.20 µm. Over-polishing of extruded material could improve its surface finish, but not for the L-PBF material due to defects and the surrounding micro-strain. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    This study characterized airborne microdroplet diameters and size distribution from two commercially available lubricants A and B for internal minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). The effects of air pressure, oil channel size, physical properties of lubricants on the resultant microdroplets and through-tool MQL drilling performance were studied. Airborne microdroplet diameters were highly sensitive to the coolant channel sizes and air pressure. Cluster method was used to divide microdroplets into smaller clusters for comparison. Experimental data show that the average airborne microdroplet of lubricant B was larger than that of lubricant A at different air pressures and channel sizes. The contact angle of lubricant A was at least 10° less than that of lubricant B when depositing on glass or aluminium. High-speed imaging showed the tendency of more viscous lubricant B sticking to the drill tip, and higher pressure and longer time was required to atomize this viscous oil. Built-up-edges were less significant when drilling A380 aluminium with lubricant A. Due to high machinability of A380 aluminium, variation of hole diameter and hole cylindricity were minimal when drilling with different lubricants. Insignificant improvement in hole quality was observed when drilling with excessive amount of MQL lubricants or high concentration of lubricant C in flood coolant. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Oil flow distribution in Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) plays an important role in the efficiency of machining processes, but it remains challenging to measure experimentally. This paper presents a new method to measure the oil flow distribution in through-channel drill bits based on the reflected light intensity. Measurements were conducted from multiple angles in order to map the flow distribution across the channel cross-sectional area. The method is applied to drill bits of a circular cross-section channel and two helix angles, 0° and 30°. The results show that, for the 0° helix angle channel, the oil concentrates near the periphery of the channel, while for 30° helix angle channel, the oil concentrates towards the center of the drill point. Furthermore, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted to compare with the measurement results, and it was observed that the oil distribution is correlated to the velocity field. Oil flow concentration is high in low velocity regions. Though preliminary, this study has concluded that the velocity field generated using single-phase CFD is a critical indicator for oil distribution in an MQL flow. 
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