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  1. Abstract

    Neuromorphic computing mimics the organizational principles of the brain in its quest to replicate the brain’s intellectual abilities. An impressive ability of the brain is its adaptive intelligence, which allows the brain to regulate its functions “on the fly” to cope with myriad and ever-changing situations. In particular, the brain displays three adaptive and advanced intelligence abilities of context-awareness, cross frequency coupling, and feature binding. To mimic these adaptive cognitive abilities, we design and simulate a novel, hardware-based adaptive oscillatory neuron using a lattice of magnetic skyrmions. Charge current fed to the neuron reconfigures the skyrmion lattice, thereby modulating the neuron’s state, its dynamics and its transfer function “on the fly.” This adaptive neuron is used to demonstrate the three cognitive abilities, of which context-awareness and cross-frequency coupling have not been previously realized in hardware neurons. Additionally, the neuron is used to construct an adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) and perform context-aware diagnosis of breast cancer. Simulations show that the adaptive ANN diagnoses cancer with higher accuracy while learning faster and using a more compact and energy-efficient network than a nonadaptive ANN. The work further describes how hardware-based adaptive neurons can mitigate several critical challenges facing contemporary ANNs. Modernmore »ANNs require large amounts of training data, energy, and chip area, and are highly task-specific; conversely, hardware-based ANNs built with adaptive neurons show faster learning, compact architectures, energy-efficiency, fault-tolerance, and can lead to the realization of broader artificial intelligence.

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  2. Abstract

    CMOS-based computing systems that employ the von Neumann architecture are relatively limited when it comes to parallel data storage and processing. In contrast, the human brain is a living computational signal processing unit that operates with extreme parallelism and energy efficiency. Although numerous neuromorphic electronic devices have emerged in the last decade, most of them are rigid or contain materials that are toxic to biological systems. In this work, we report on biocompatible bilayer graphene-based artificial synaptic transistors (BLAST) capable of mimicking synaptic behavior. The BLAST devices leverage a dry ion-selective membrane, enabling long-term potentiation, with ~50 aJ/µm2switching energy efficiency, at least an order of magnitude lower than previous reports on two-dimensional material-based artificial synapses. The devices show unique metaplasticity, a useful feature for generalizable deep neural networks, and we demonstrate that metaplastic BLASTs outperform ideal linear synapses in classic image classification tasks. With switching energy well below the 1 fJ energy estimated per biological synapse, the proposed devices are powerful candidates for bio-interfaced online learning, bridging the gap between artificial and biological neural networks.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  4. Magnetic skyrmions are nanoscale whirls of magnetism that can be propagated with electrical currents. The repulsion between skyrmions inspires their use for reversible computing based on the elastic billiard ball collisions proposed for conservative logic in 1982. Here we evaluate the logical and physical reversibility of this skyrmion logic paradigm, as well as the limitations that must be addressed before dissipation-free computation can be realized.
  5. The domain wall-magnetic tunnel junction (DW-MTJ) is a spintronic device that enables efficient logic circuit design because of its low energy consumption, small size, and non-volatility. Furthermore, the DW-MTJ is one of the few spintronic devices for which a direct cascading mechanism is experimentally demonstrated without any extra buffers; this enables potential design and fabrication of a large-scale DW-MTJ logic system. However, DW-MTJ logic relies on the conversion between electrical signals and magnetic states which is sensitive to process imperfection. Therefore, it is important to analyze the robustness of such DW-MTJ devices to anticipate the system reliability before fabrication. Here we propose a new DW-MTJ model that integrates the impacts of process variation to enable the analysis and optimization of DW-MTJ logic. This will allow circuit and device design that enhances the robustness of DW-MTJ logic and advances the development of energy-efficient spintronic computing systems.
  6. Drouhin, Henri-Jean M. ; Wegrowe, Jean-Eric ; Razeghi, Manijeh (Ed.)
    Neuromorphic computing captures the quintessential neural behaviors of the brain and is a promising candidate for the beyond-von Neumann computer architectures, featuring low power consumption and high parallelism. The neuronal lateral inhibition feature, closely associated with the biological receptive eld, is crucial to neuronal competition in the nervous system as well as its neuromorphic hardware counterpart. The domain wall - magnetic tunnel junction (DW-MTJ) neuron is an emerging spintronic arti cial neuron device exhibiting intrinsic lateral inhibition. This work discusses lateral inhibition mechanism of the DW-MTJ neuron and shows by micromagnetic simulation that lateral inhibition is eciently enhanced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI).