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  1. Abstract

    Reactions that lead to destruction of aromatic ring systems often require harsh conditions and, thus, take place with poor selectivities. Selective partial dearomatization of fused arenes is even more challenging but can be a strategic approach to creating versatile, complex polycyclic frameworks. Herein we describe a general organophotoredox approach for the chemo- and regioselective dearomatization of structurally diverse polycyclic aromatics, including quinolines, isoquinolines, quinoxalines, naphthalenes, anthracenes and phenanthrenes. The success of the method for chemoselective oxidative rupture of aromatic moieties relies on precise manipulation of the electronic nature of the fused polycyclic arenes. Mechanistic studies show that the addition of a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) agent helps favor the dearomatization pathway over the more thermodynamically downhill aromatization pathway. We show that this strategy can be applied to rapid synthesis of biologically valued targets and late-stage skeletal remodeling en route to complex structures.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    While strategies involving a 2e − transfer pathway have dictated glycosylation development, the direct glycosylation of readily accessible glycosyl donors as radical precursors is particularly appealing because of high radical anomeric selectivity and atom- and step-economy. However, the development of the radical process has been challenging owing to notorious competing reduction, elimination and/or S N side reactions of commonly used, labile glycosyl donors. Here we introduce an organophotocatalytic strategy through which glycosyl bromides can be efficiently converted into corresponding anomeric radicals by photoredox mediated HAT catalysis without a transition metal or a directing group and achieve highly anomeric selectivity. The power of this platform has been demonstrated by the mild reaction conditions enabling the synthesis of challenging α-1,2- cis -thioglycosides, the tolerance of various functional groups and the broad substrate scope for both common pentoses and hexoses. Furthermore, this general approach is compatible with both sp 2 and sp 3 sulfur electrophiles and late-stage glycodiversification for a total of 50 substrates probed. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The final stages of mammalian erythropoiesis involve enucleation, membrane and proteome remodeling, and organelle clearance. Concomitantly, the erythroid membrane skeleton establishes a unique pseudohexagonal spectrin meshwork that is connected to the membrane through junctional complexes. The mechanism and signaling pathways involved in the coordination of these processes are unclear. The results of our study revealed an unexpected role of the membrane skeleton in the modulation of proteome remodeling and organelle clearance during the final stages of erythropoiesis. We found that diaphanous-related formin mDia2 is a master regulator of the integrity of the membrane skeleton through polymerization of actin protofilament in the junctional complex. The mDia2-deficient terminal erythroid cell contained a disorganized and rigid membrane skeleton that was ineffective in detaching the extruded nucleus. In addition, the disrupted skeleton failed to activate the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) complex, which led to a global defect in proteome remodeling, endolysosomal trafficking, and autophagic organelle clearance. Chmp5, a component of the ESCRT-III complex, is regulated by mDia2-dependent activation of the serum response factor and is essential for membrane remodeling and autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Mice with loss of Chmp5 in hematopoietic cells in vivo resembled the phenotypes in mDia2-knockout mice. Furthermore, overexpression of Chmp5 in mDia2-deficient hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells significantly restored terminal erythropoiesis in vivo. These findings reveal a formin-regulated signaling pathway that connects the membrane skeleton to proteome remodeling, enucleation, and organelle clearance during terminal erythropoiesis. 
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  5. 1. Multivariate climate change is expected to impact insect densities and plant growth in complex, and potentially different, ways. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a unique crop system where the increase in quality from chemical defences induced byEmpoasca onukii(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) feeding can outweigh reductions in yield and make attack by this leafhopper desirable to tea farmers. Differential impacts of weather attributes on tea and herbivores could impact feasibility of this unique farming strategy in a rapidly changing climate.

    2. We monitored leafhopper densities and tea shoot growth at a tea farm in Fujian Province, China for 2 months (June and July). We used distributed lag non‐linear models to capture potentially delayed and non‐linear effects of weather attributes on tea growth and leafhopper densities.

    3. Weather attributes had contrasting effects on leafhopper density and tea shoot growth. Leafhopper densities were highest with low daily mean and maximum temperatures, while warm temperatures favoured tea growth. Effects of temperature on leafhoppers were delayed, while effects on tea growth were immediate. Precipitation reduced tea growth, and had a delayed positive effect on leafhopper density.

    4. The delayed effects of weather attributes on leafhoppers indicate that earlier, less conspicuous life stages (i.e. eggs and early instar nymphs) may be susceptible to desiccation. Although increasing annual mean temperature is commonly predicted to benefit multivoltine insect pests, our results show that cool, wet conditions benefitE. onukiiduring summer months when they are most abundant. These results have implications for tea green leafhopper management strategies.

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