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  1. Abstract This paper reports the development of a numerical solver aimed to simulate the interaction between the space charge (i.e. ions) distribution and the electric field in liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. The ion transport equation is solved by a time-accurate, cell-centered finite volume method and the electric potential equation by a continuous finite element method. The electric potential equation updates the electric field which provides the drift velocity to the ion transport equation. The ion transport equation updates the space charge density distribution which appears as the source term in the electric potential equation. The interaction between the space charge distribution and the electric field is numerically simulated within each physical time step. The convective velocity in the ion transport equation can include the background flow velocity in addition to the electric drift velocity. The numerical solver has been parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. Numerical tests show and verify the capability and accuracy of the current numerical solver. It is planned that the developed numerical solver, together with a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package which provides the flow velocity field, can be used to investigate the space charge effect on the electric field inmore »large-scale particle detectors.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Background

    A robotic rehabilitation gym can be defined as multiple patients training with multiple robots or passive sensorized devices in a group setting. Recent work with such gyms has shown positive rehabilitation outcomes; furthermore, such gyms allow a single therapist to supervise more than one patient, increasing cost-effectiveness. To allow more effective multipatient supervision in future robotic rehabilitation gyms, we propose an automated system that could dynamically assign patients to different robots within a session in order to optimize rehabilitation outcome.


    As a first step toward implementing a practical patient-robot assignment system, we present a simplified mathematical model of a robotic rehabilitation gym. Mixed-integer nonlinear programming algorithms are used to find effective assignment and training solutions for multiple evaluation scenarios involving different numbers of patients and robots (5 patients and 5 robots, 6 patients and 5 robots, 5 patients and 7 robots), different training durations (7 or 12 time steps) and different complexity levels (whether different patients have different skill acquisition curves, whether robots have exit times associated with them). In all cases, the goal is to maximize total skill gain across all patients and skills within a session.


    Analyses of variance across different scenarios show that disjunctive and time-indexedmore »optimization models significantly outperform two baseline schedules: staying on one robot throughout a session and switching robots halfway through a session. The disjunctive model results in higher skill gain than the time-indexed model in the given scenarios, and the optimization duration increases as the number of patients, robots and time steps increases. Additionally, we discuss how different model simplifications (e.g., perfectly known and predictable patient skill level) could be addressed in the future and how such software may eventually be used in practice.


    Though it involves unrealistically simple scenarios, our study shows that intelligently moving patients between different rehabilitation robots can improve overall skill acquisition in a multi-patient multi-robot environment. While robotic rehabilitation gyms are not yet commonplace in clinical practice, prototypes of them already exist, and our study presents a way to use intelligent decision support to potentially enable more efficient delivery of technologically aided rehabilitation.

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  5. Abstract Investigating the length scales of granules could help understand the dynamics of granules in the photosphere. In this work, we detected and identified granules in an active region near disk center observed at wavelength of TiO (7057 Å) by the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope (GST). By a detailed analysis of the size distribution and flatness of granules, we found a critical size that divides the granules in motions into two regimes: convection and turbulence. The length scales of granules with sizes larger than 600 km follow Gauss function and demonstrate “flat” in flatness, which reveal that these granules are dominated by convection. Those with sizes smaller than 600 km follow power-law function and behave power-law tendency in flatness, which indicate that the small granules are dominated by turbulence. Hence, for the granules in active regions, they are originally convective in large length scale, and directly become turbulent once their sizes turn to small, likely below the critical size of 600 km. Comparing with the granules in quiet regions, they evolve with the absence of the mixing motions of convection and turbulence. Such a difference is probably caused by the interaction between fluid motions and strong magnetic fields inmore »active regions. The strong magnetic fields make high magnetic pressure which creates pressure walls and slows down the evolution of convective granules. Such walls cause convective granules extending to smaller sizes on one hand, and cause wide intergranular lanes on the other hand. The small granules isolated in such wide intergranular lanes are continually sheared, rotated by strong downflows in surroundings and hereby become turbulent.« less
  6. Monolingual word alignment is important for studying fine-grained editing operations (i.e., deletion, addition, and substitution) in text-to-text generation tasks, such as paraphrase generation, text simplification, neutralizing biased language, etc. In this paper, we present a novel neural semi-Markov CRF alignment model, which unifies word and phrase alignments through variable-length spans. We also create a new benchmark with human annotations that cover four different text genres to evaluate monolingual word alignment models in more realistic settings. Experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms all previous approaches for monolingual word alignment as well as a competitive QA-based baseline, which was previously only applied to bilingual data. Our model demonstrates good generalizability to three out-of-domain datasets and shows great utility in two downstream applications: automatic text simplification and sentence pair classification tasks.