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  1. Abstract

    How fast a state of a system converges to a stationary state is one of the fundamental questions in science. Some Markov chains and random walks on finite groups are known to exhibit the non-asymptotic convergence to a stationary distribution, called the cutoff phenomenon. Here, we examine how quickly a random quantum circuit could transform a quantum state to a Haar-measure random quantum state. We find that random quantum states, as stationary states of random walks on a unitary group, are invariant under the quantum Fourier transform (QFT). Thus the entropic uncertainty of random quantum states has balanced Shannon entropies for the computational basis and the QFT basis. By calculating the Shannon entropy for random quantum states and the Wasserstein distances for the eigenvalues of random quantum circuits, we show that the cutoff phenomenon occurs for the random quantum circuit. It is also demonstrated that the Dyson-Brownian motion for the eigenvalues of a random unitary matrix as a continuous random walk exhibits the cutoff phenomenon. The results here imply that random quantum states could be generated with shallow random circuits.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 8, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Most existing quantum algorithms are discovered accidentally or adapted from classical algorithms, and there is the need for a systematic theory to understand and design quantum circuits. Here we develop a unitary dependence theory to characterize the behaviors of quantum circuits and states in terms of how quantum gates manipulate qubits and determine their measurement probabilities. Compared to the conventional entanglement description of quantum circuits and states, the unitary dependence picture offers more practical information on the measurement and manipulation of qubits, easier generalization to many-qubit systems, and better robustness upon partitioning of the system. The unitary dependence theory can be applied to systematically understand existing quantum circuits and design new quantum algorithms.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 26, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  7. We explore how to build quantum circuits that compute the lowest energy state corresponding to a given Hamiltonian within a symmetry subspace by explicitly encoding it into the circuit. We create an explicit unitary and a variationally trained unitary that maps any vector output by ansatz A(α→) from a defined subspace to a vector in the symmetry space. The parameters are trained varitionally to minimize the energy, thus keeping the output within the labelled symmetry value. The method was tested for a spin XXZ Hamiltonian using rotation and reflection symmetry and H2 Hamiltonian within Sz=0 subspace using S2 symmetry. We have found the variationally trained unitary gives good results with very low depth circuits and can thus be used to prepare symmetry states within near term quantum computers. 
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  8. Abstract

    Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize computing, but its significant sensitivity to noise requires sophisticated error correction and mitigation. Traditionally, noise on the quantum device is characterized directly through qubit and gate measurements, but this approach has drawbacks in that it does not adequately capture the effect of noise on realistic multi-qubit applications. In this paper, we simulate the relaxation of stationary quantum states on a quantum computer to obtain a unique spectroscopic fingerprint of the computer’s noise. In contrast to traditional approaches, we obtain the frequency profile of the noise as it is experienced by the simulated stationary quantum states. Data from multiple superconducting-qubit IBM processors show that noise generates a bath within the simulation that exhibits both colored noise and non-Markovian behavior. Our results provide a direction for noise mitigation but also suggest how to use noise for quantum simulations of open systems.

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  9. Abstract

    We present a quantum algorithm for data classification based on the nearest-neighbor learning algorithm. The classification algorithm is divided into two steps: Firstly, data in the same class is divided into smaller groups with sublabels assisting building boundaries between data with different labels. Secondly we construct a quantum circuit for classification that contains multi control gates. The algorithm is easy to implement and efficient in predicting the labels of test data. To illustrate the power and efficiency of this approach, we construct the phase transition diagram for the metal-insulator transition ofVO2, using limited trained experimental data, whereVO2is a typical strongly correlated electron materials, and the metallic-insulating phase transition has drawn much attention in condensed matter physics. Moreover, we demonstrate our algorithm on the classification of randomly generated data and the classification of entanglement for various Werner states, where the training sets can not be divided by a single curve, instead, more than one curves are required to separate them apart perfectly. Our preliminary result shows considerable potential for various classification problems, particularly for constructing different phases in materials.

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