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  1. Supervised Continual learning involves updating a deep neural network (DNN) from an ever-growing stream of labeled data. While most work has focused on overcoming catastrophic forgetting, one of the major motivations behind continual learning is being able to efficiently update a network with new information, rather than retraining from scratch on the training dataset as it grows over time. Despite recent continual learning methods largely solving the catastrophic forgetting problem, there has been little attention paid to the efficiency of these algorithms. Here, we study recent methods for incremental class learning and illustrate that many are highly inefficient in terms of compute, memory, and storage. Some methods even require more compute than training from scratch! We argue that for continual learning to have real-world applicability, the research community cannot ignore the resources used by these algorithms. There is more to continual learning than mitigating catastrophic forgetting. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Real-time on-device continual learning is needed for new applications such as home robots, user personalization on smartphones, and augmented/virtual reality headsets. However, this setting poses unique challenges: embedded devices have limited memory and compute capacity and conventional machine learning models suffer from catastrophic forgetting when updated on non-stationary data streams. While several online continual learning models have been developed, their effectiveness for embedded applications has not been rigorously studied. In this paper, we first identify criteria that online continual learners must meet to effectively perform real-time, on-device learning. We then study the efficacy of several online continual learning methods when used with mobile neural networks. We measure their performance, memory usage, compute requirements, and ability to generalize to out-of-domain inputs. 
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  3. This paper presents an approach to detect out-of-context (OOC) objects in an image. Given an image with a set of objects, our goal is to determine if an object is inconsistent with the scene context and detect the OOC object with a bounding box. In this work, we consider commonly explored contextual relations such as co-occurrence relations, the relative size of an object with respect to other objects, and the position of the object in the scene. We posit that contextual cues are useful to determine object labels for in-context objects and inconsistent context cues are detrimental to determining object labels for out-of-context objects. To realize this hypothesis, we propose a graph contextual reasoning network (GCRN) to detect OOC objects. GCRN consists of two separate graphs to predict object labels based on the contextual cues in the image: 1) a representation graph to learn object features based on the neighboring objects and 2) a context graph to explicitly capture contextual cues from the neighboring objects. GCRN explicitly captures the contextual cues to improve the detection of in-context objects and identify objects that violate contextual relations. In order to evaluate our approach, we create a large-scale dataset by adding OOC object instances to the COCO images. We also evaluate on recent OCD benchmark. Our results show that GCRN outperforms competitive baselines in detecting OOC objects and correctly detecting in-context objects. 
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  4. This paper presents an approach to detect out-of-context (OOC) objects in an image. Given an image with a set of objects, our goal is to determine if an object is inconsistent with the scene context and detect the OOC object with a bounding box. In this work, we consider commonly explored contextual relations such as co-occurrence relations, the relative size of an object with respect to other objects, and the position of the object in the scene. We posit that contextual cues are useful to determine object labels for in-context objects and inconsistent context cues are detrimental to determining object labels for out-of-context objects. To realize this hypothesis, we propose a graph contextual reasoning network (GCRN) to detect OOC objects. GCRN consists of two separate graphs to predict object labels based on the contextual cues in the image: 1) a representation graph to learn object features based on the neighboring objects and 2) a context graph to explicitly capture contextual cues from the neighboring objects. GCRN explicitly captures the contextual cues to improve the detection of in-context objects and identify objects that violate contextual relations. In order to evaluate our approach, we create a large-scale dataset by adding OOC object instances to the COCO images. We also evaluate on recent OCD benchmark. Our results show that GCRN outperforms competitive baselines in detecting OOC objects and correctly detecting in-context objects. 
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  5. Humans are incredibly good at transferring knowledge from one domain to another, enabling rapid learning of new tasks. Likewise, transfer learning has enabled enormous success in many computer vision problems using pretraining. However, the benefits of transfer in multi-domain learning, where a network learns multiple tasks defined by different datasets, has not been adequately studied. Learning multiple domains could be beneficial, or these domains could interfere with each other given limited network capacity. Understanding how deep neural networks of varied capacity facilitate transfer across inputs from different distributions is a critical step towards open world learning. In this work, we decipher the conditions where interference and knowledge transfer occur in multi-domain learning. We propose new metrics disentangling interference and transfer, set up experimental protocols, and examine the roles of network capacity, task grouping, and dynamic loss weighting in reducing interference and facilitating transfer. 
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  6. Dataset bias and spurious correlations can significantly impair generalization in deep neural networks. Many prior efforts have addressed this problem using either alternative loss functions or sampling strategies that focus on rare patterns. We propose a new direction: modifying the network architecture to impose inductive biases that make the network robust to dataset bias. Specifically, we propose OccamNets, which are biased to favor simpler solutions by design. OccamNets have two inductive biases. First, they are biased to use as little network depth as needed for an individual example. Second, they are biased toward using fewer image locations for prediction. While OccamNets are biased toward simpler hypotheses, they can learn more complex hypotheses if necessary. In experiments, OccamNets outperform or rival state-of-the-art methods run on architectures that do not incorporate these inductive biases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when the state-of-the-art debiasing methods are combined with OccamNets results further improve. 
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  7. A critical problem in deep learning is that systems learn inappropriate biases, resulting in their inability to perform well on minority groups. This has led to the creation of multiple algorithms that endeavor to mitigate bias. However, it is not clear how effective these methods are. This is because study protocols differ among papers, systems are tested on datasets that fail to test many forms of bias, and systems have access to hidden knowledge or are tuned specifically to the test set. To address this, we introduce an improved evaluation protocol, sensible metrics, and a new dataset, which enables us to ask and answer critical questions about bias mitigation algorithms. We evaluate seven state-of-the-art algorithms using the same network architecture and hyperparameter selection policy across three benchmark datasets. We introduce a new dataset called Biased MNIST that enables assessment of robustness to multiple bias sources. We use Biased MNIST and a visual question answering (VQA) benchmark to assess robustness to hidden biases. Rather than only tuning to the test set distribution, we study robustness across different tuning distributions, which is critical because for many applications the test distribution may not be known during development. We find that algorithms exploit hidden biases, are unable to scale to multiple forms of bias, and are highly sensitive to the choice of tuning set. Based on our findings, we implore the community to adopt more rigorous assessment of future bias mitigation methods. All data, code, and results are publicly available. 
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  8. Incorrectly labeled examples, or label noise, is common in real-world computer vision datasets. While the impact of label noise on learning in deep neural networks has been studied in prior work, these studies have exclusively focused on homogeneous label noise, i.e., the degree of label noise is the same across all categories. However, in the real-world, label noise is often heterogeneous, with some categories being affected to a greater extent than others. Here, we address this gap in the literature. We hypothesized that heterogeneous label noise would only affect the classes that had label noise unless there was transfer from those classes to the classes without label noise. To test this hypothesis, we designed a series of computer vision studies using MNIST, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and MS-COCO where we imposed heterogeneous label noise during the training of multi-class, multi-task, and multi-label systems. Our results provide evidence in support of our hypothesis: label noise only affects the class affected by it unless there is transfer. 
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  9. null (Ed.)
    In continual learning, a system learns from non-stationary data streams or batches without catastrophic forgetting. While this problem has been heavily studied in supervised image classification and reinforcement learning, continual learning in neural networks designed for abstract reasoning has not yet been studied. Here, we study continual learning of analogical reasoning. Analogical reasoning tests such as Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPMs) are commonly used to measure non-verbal abstract reasoning in humans, and recently offline neural networks for the RPM problem have been proposed. In this paper, we establish experimental baselines, protocols, and forward and backward transfer metrics to evaluate continual learners on RPMs. We employ experience replay to mitigate catastrophic forgetting. Prior work using replay for image classification tasks has found that selectively choosing the samples to replay offers little, if any, benefit over random selection. In contrast, we find that selective replay can significantly outperform random selection for the RPM task. 
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  10. When an agent acquires new information, ideally it would immediately be capable of using that information to understand its environment. This is not possible using conventional deep neural networks, which suffer from catastrophic forgetting when they are incrementally updated, with new knowledge overwriting established representations. A variety of approaches have been developed that attempt to mitigate catastrophic forgetting in the incremental batch learning scenario, where a model learns from a series of large collections of labeled samples. However, in this setting, inference is only possible after a batch has been accumulated, which prohibits many applications. An alternative paradigm is online learning in a single pass through the training dataset on a resource constrained budget, which is known as streaming learning. Streaming learning has been much less studied in the deep learning community. In streaming learning, an agent learns instances one-by-one and can be tested at any time, rather than only after learning a large batch. Here, we revisit streaming linear discriminant analysis, which has been widely used in the data mining research community. By combining streaming linear discriminant analysis with deep learning, we are able to outperform both incremental batch learning and streaming learning algorithms on both ImageNet ILSVRC-2012 and CORe50, a dataset that involves learning to classify from temporally ordered samples. 
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