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  1. Abstract We continue our program of publishing all planets (and possible planets) found by eye in 2021 Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) online data. We present four planets (KMT-2021-BLG-0712Lb, KMT-2021-BLG-0909Lb, KMT-2021-BLG-2478Lb, and KMT-2021-BLG-1105Lb), with planet-to-host mass ratios in the range − 3.3 ≲ log q ≲ − 2.2 . This brings the total of secure, by-eye, 2021 KMTNet planets to 16, including 8 in this series. The by-eye sample is an important check of the completeness of semiautomated detections, which are the basis for statistical analyses. One of the planets, KMT-2021-BLG-1105Lb, is blended with a relatively bright ( I , V ) ∼ (18.9, 21.6) star that may be the host. This could be verified immediately by high-resolution imaging. If so, the host is an early G dwarf, and the planet could be characterized by radial velocity observations on 30 m class telescopes. 
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  2. Abstract We inaugurate a program of “mass production” of microlensing planets discovered in 2021 KMTNet data, with the aim of laying the basis for future statistical studies. While we ultimately plan to quickly publish all 2021 planets meeting some minimal criteria, the current sample of four was chosen simply on the basis of having low initial estimates of the planet–host mass ratio, q . It is therefore notable that two members of this sample suffer from a degeneracy in the normalized source radius ρ that arises from different morphologies of closely spaced caustics. All four planets (KMT-2021-BLG-1391, KMT-2021-BLG-1253, KMT-2021-BLG-1372, KMT-2021-BLG-0748) have well-characterized mass ratios, q , and therefore are suitable for mass-ratio frequency studies. Both of the ρ degeneracies can be resolved by future adaptive optics (AO) observations on 30 m class telescopes. We provide general guidance for such AO observations for all events in anticipation of the prospect that they will revolutionize the field of microlensing planets. 
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  3. Abstract We complete the analysis of all 2018 sub-prime-field microlensing planets identified by the KMTNet AnomalyFinder. Among the 9 previously unpublished events with clear planetary solutions, 6 are clearly planetary (OGLE-2018-BLG-0298, KMT-2018-BLG-0087, KMT-2018-BLG-0247, KMT-2018-BLG-0030, OGLE-2018-BLG-1119, and KMT-2018-BLG-2602), while the remaining 3 are ambiguous in nature. The above ordering of these events is made to facilitate grouping of their Bayesian estimates: the first two are lower-mass gas giants while the last four are Jovian-class planets; the first three most likely lie in the bulge, the last in the disk, and the remaining two are equally likely to be in either population. More specifically, these six planets have host masses M host = ( 0.69 − 0.30 + 0.34 , 0.10 − 0.05 + 0.14 , 0.29 − 0.14 + 0.28 , 0.51 − 0.31 + 0.43 , 0.48 − 0.28 + 0.35 , 0.66 − 0.36 + 0.42 ) M ⊙ , planet masses M planet = ( 0.14 − 0.06 + 0.07 , 0.23 − 0.12 + 0.32 , 2.11 − 1.04 + 2.09 , 1.45 − 0.88 + 1.23 , 0.91 − 0.52 + 0.66 , 1.15 − 0.63 + 0.73 ) M Jup , and distances D L = ( 6.54 − 1.23 + 0.95 , 7.02 − 1.15 + 1.03 , 6.76 − 1.24 + 0.99 , 6.48 − 1.96 + 1.28 , 5.76 − 2.48 + 1.43 , 4.31 − 1.84 + 1.97 ) kpc . In addition, there are 8 previously published sub-prime-field planets that were selected by the AnomalyFinder algorithm. Together with a companion paper on 2018 prime-field planets, this work lays the basis for comprehensive statistical studies. We carry out two such studies, one on caustic topologies and the other on the role of Gaia data. From the first, as expected, half (17/33) of the 2018 planets likely to enter the mass-ratio analysis have non-caustic-crossing anomalies. However, only 1 of the 5 noncaustic anomalies with planet-host mass ratio q < 10 −3 was discovered by eye (compared to 7 of the 12 with q > 10 −3 ), showing the importance of the semiautomated AnomalyFinder search. From the second, we find that Gaia has played a major role in the interpretation of 16% of the sample and a supplementary role in 6%. 
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  4. Aims. We reexamine high-magnification microlensing events in the previous data collected by the KMTNet survey with the aim of finding planetary signals that were not noticed before. In this work, we report the planetary system KMT-2018-BLG-1988L, which was found from this investigation. Methods. The planetary signal appears as a deviation with ≲0.2 mag from a single-lens light curve and lasted for about 6 h. The deviation exhibits a pattern of a dip surrounded by weak bumps on both sides of the dip. The analysis of the lensing light curve indicates that the signal is produced by a low-mass-ratio ( q ~ 4 × 10 −5 ) planetary companion located near the Einstein ring of the host star. Results. The mass of the planet, M planet  = 6.8 −3.5 +4.7  M ⊕ and 5.6 −2.8 +3.8  M ⊕ for the two possible solutions, estimated from the Bayesian analysis indicates that the planet is in the regime of a super-Earth. The host of the planet is a disk star with a mass of M host  = 0.47 −0.25 +0.33  M ⊙ and a distance of D L  = 4.2 −.14 +1.8 kpc. KMT-2018-BLG-1988Lb is the 18th known microlensing planet with a mass below the upper limit of a super-Earth. The fact that 15 out of the 18 known microlensing planets with masses ≲10  M ⊕ were detected in the 5 yr following the full operation of the KMTNet survey indicates that the KMTNet database is an important reservoir of very low-mass planets. 
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  5. Aims. With the aim of finding microlensing binaries containing brown dwarf (BD) companions, we investigate the microlensing survey data collected during the 2016–2018 seasons. Methods. For this purpose, we first modeled lensing events with light curves exhibiting anomaly features that are likely to be produced by binary lenses. We then sorted out BD companion binary-lens events by applying the criterion that the companion-to-primary mass ratio is q  ≲ 0.1. With this procedure, we identify six binaries with candidate BD companions: OGLE-2016-BLG-0890L, MOA-2017-BLG-477L, OGLE-2017-BLG-0614L, KMT-2018-BLG-0357L, OGLE-2018-BLG-1489L, and OGLE-2018-BLG-0360L. Results. We estimated the masses of the binary companions by conducting Bayesian analyses using the observables of the individual lensing events. According to the Bayesian estimation of the lens masses, the probabilities for the lens companions of the events OGLE-2016-BLG-0890, OGLE-2017-BLG-0614, OGLE-2018-BLG-1489, and OGLE-2018-BLG-0360 to be in the BD mass regime are very high with P BD  > 80%. For MOA-2017-BLG-477 and KMT-2018-BLG-0357, the probabilities are relatively low with P BD  = 61% and 69%, respectively. 
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  6. Aims. The high-magnification microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-1077 exhibits a subtle and complex anomaly pattern in the region around the peak. We analyze the lensing light curve of the event with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomaly. Methods. We test various models in combination with several interpretations: that the lens is a binary (2L1S), the source is a binary (1L2S), both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S), or the lens is a triple system (3L1S). We search for the best-fit models under the individual interpretations of the lens and source systems. Results. We find that the anomaly cannot be explained by the usual three-body (2L1S and 1L2S) models. The 2L2S model improves the fit compared to the three-body models, but it still leaves noticeable residuals. On the other hand, the 3L1S interpretation yields a model explaining all the major anomalous features in the lensing light curve. According to the 3L1S interpretation, the estimated mass ratios of the lens companions to the primary are ~1.56 × 10 −3 and ~1.75 × 10 −3 , which correspond to ~1.6 and ~1.8 times the Jupiter/Sun mass ratio, respectively, and therefore the lens is a multiplanetary system containing two giant planets. With the constraints of the event time-scale and angular Einstein radius, it is found that the host of the lens system is a low-mass star of mid-to-late M spectral type with amass of M h = 0.14 −0.07 +0.19 M Θ , and it hosts two gas giant planets with masses of M p1 = 0.22 −0.12 +0.31 M J and M p2 = 0.25 −0.13 +0.35 . The planets lie beyond the snow line of the host with projected separations of a ⊥,p1 = 1.26 −1.08 +1.41 AU and a ⊥,p2 = 0.93 −0.80 +1.05 AU. The planetary system resides in the Galactic bulge at a distance of D L = 8.24 −1.16 +1.02 kpc. The lens of the event is the fifth confirmed multiplanetary system detected by microlensing following OGLE-2006-BLG-109L, OGLE-2012-BLG-0026L, OGLE-2018-BLG-1011L, and OGLE-2019-BLG-0468L. 
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  7. ABSTRACT We present K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb, a densely sampled, planetary binary caustic-crossing microlensing event found from a blind search of data gathered from Campaign 9 of the Kepler K2 mission (K2C9). K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb is the first bound microlensing exoplanet discovered from space-based data. The event has caustic entry and exit points that are resolved in the K2C9 data, enabling the lens-source relative proper motion to be measured. We have fitted a binary microlens model to the Kepler data and to simultaneous observations from multiple ground-based surveys. Whilst the ground-based data only sparsely sample the binary caustic, they provide a clear detection of parallax that allows us to break completely the microlensing mass-position-velocity degeneracy and measure the planet’s mass directly. We find a host mass of 0.58 ± 0.04 M⊙ and a planetary mass of 1.1 ± 0.1 MJ. The system lies at a distance of 5.2 ± 0.2 kpc from Earth towards the Galactic bulge, more than twice the distance of the previous most distant planet found by Kepler. The sky-projected separation of the planet from its host is found to be 4.2 ± 0.3 au which, for circular orbits, deprojects to a host separation $a = 4.4^{+1.9}_{-0.4}$ au and orbital period $P = 13^{+9}_{-2}$ yr. This makes K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb a close Jupiter analogue orbiting a low-mass host star. According to current planet formation models, this system is very close to the host mass threshold below which Jupiters are not expected to form. Upcoming space-based exoplanet microlensing surveys by NASA’s Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and, possibly, ESA’s Euclid mission, will provide demanding tests of current planet formation models. 
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  8. Abstract OGLE-2016-BLG-1093 is a planetary microlensing event that is part of the statistical Spitzer microlens parallax sample. The precise measurement of the microlens parallax effect for this event, combined with the measurement of finite-source effects, leads to a direct measurement of the lens masses and system distance, M host =0.38–0.57 M ⊙ and m p = 0.59–0.87 M Jup , and the system is located at the Galactic bulge ( D L ∼ 8.1 kpc). Because this was a high-magnification event, we are also able to empirically show that the “cheap-space parallax” concept produces well-constrained (and consistent) results for ∣ π E ∣. This demonstrates that this concept can be extended to many two-body lenses. Finally, we briefly explore systematics in the Spitzer light curve in this event and show that their potential impact is strongly mitigated by the color constraint. 
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