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  1. null (Ed.)
    Communication between human and mobile agents is getting increasingly important as such agents are widely deployed in our daily lives. Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation is one of the tasks that evaluate the agent’s ability to interact with humans for assistance and navigate based on natural language responses. In this paper, we explore the Navigation from Dialogue History (NDH) task, which is based on the Cooperative Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation (CVDN) dataset, and present a state-of-the-art model which is built upon Vision-Language transformers. However, despite achieving competitive performance, we find that the agent in the NDH task is not evaluated appropriately by the primary metric – Goal Progress. By analyzing the performance mismatch between Goal Progress and other metrics (e.g., normalized Dynamic Time Warping) from our state-of-the-art model, we show that NDH’s sub-path based task setup (i.e., navigating partial trajectory based on its correspondent subset of the full dialogue) does not provide the agent with enough supervision signal towards the goal region. Therefore, we propose a new task setup called NDH-Full which takes the full dialogue and the whole navigation path as one instance. We present a strong baseline model and show initial results on this new task. We further describe several approaches that we try, in order to improve the model performance (based on curriculum learning, pre-training, and data-augmentation), suggesting potential useful training methods on this new NDH-Full task. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Interest in physical therapy and individual exercises such as yoga/dance has increased alongside the well-being trend, and people globally enjoy such exercises at home/office via video streaming platforms. However, such exercises are hard to follow without expert guidance. Even if experts can help, it is almost impossible to give personalized feedback to every trainee remotely. Thus, automated pose correction systems are required more than ever, and we introduce a new captioning dataset named FixMyPose to address this need. We collect natural language descriptions of correcting a “current” pose to look like a “target” pose. To support a multilingual setup, we collect descriptions in both English and Hindi. The collected descriptions have interesting linguistic properties such as egocentric relations to the environment objects, analogous references, etc., requiring an understanding of spatial relations and commonsense knowledge about postures. Further, to avoid ML biases, we maintain a balance across characters with diverse demographics, who perform a variety of movements in several interior environments (e.g., homes, offices). From our FixMyPose dataset, we introduce two tasks: the pose-correctional-captioning task and its reverse, the target-pose-retrieval task. During the correctional-captioning task, models must generate the descriptions of how to move from the current to the target pose image, whereas in the retrieval task, models should select the correct target pose given the initial pose and the correctional description. We present strong cross-attention baseline models (uni/multimodal, RL, multilingual) and also show that our baselines are competitive with other models when evaluated on other image-difference datasets. We also propose new task-specific metrics (object-match, body-part-match, direction-match) and conduct human evaluation for more reliable evaluation, and we demonstrate a large human-model performance gap suggesting room for promising future work. Finally, to verify the sim-to-real transfer of our FixMyPose dataset, we collect a set of real images and show promising performance on these images. Data and code are available: 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    For embodied agents, navigation is an important ability but not an isolated goal. Agents are also expected to perform specific tasks after reaching the target location, such as picking up objects and assembling them into a particular arrangement. We combine Vision-andLanguage Navigation, assembling of collected objects, and object referring expression comprehension, to create a novel joint navigation-and-assembly task, named ARRAMON. During this task, the agent (similar to a PokeMON GO player) is asked to find and collect different target objects one-by-one by navigating based on natural language (English) instructions in a complex, realistic outdoor environment, but then also ARRAnge the collected objects part-by-part in an egocentric grid-layout environment. To support this task, we implement a 3D dynamic environment simulator and collect a dataset with human-written navigation and assembling instructions, and the corresponding ground truth trajectories. We also filter the collected instructions via a verification stage, leading to a total of 7.7K task instances (30.8K instructions and paths). We present results for several baseline models (integrated and biased) and metrics (nDTW, CTC, rPOD, and PTC), and the large model-human performance gap demonstrates that our task is challenging and presents a wide scope for future work. 
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  4. Videos convey rich information. Dynamic spatio-temporal relationships between people/objects, and diverse multimodal events are present in a video clip. Hence, it is important to develop automated models that can accurately extract such information from videos. Answering questions on videos is one of the tasks which can evaluate such AI abilities. In this paper, we propose a video question answering model which effectively integrates multi-modal input sources and finds the temporally relevant information to answer questions. Specifically, we first employ dense image captions to help identify objects and their detailed salient regions and actions, and hence give the model useful extra information (in explicit textual format to allow easier matching) for answering questions. Moreover, our model is also comprised of dual-level attention (word/object and frame level), multi-head self/cross-integration for different sources (video and dense captions), and gates which pass more relevant information to the classifier. Finally, we also cast the frame selection problem as a multi-label classification task and introduce two loss functions, In-andOut Frame Score Margin (IOFSM) and Balanced Binary Cross-Entropy (BBCE), to better supervise the model with human importance annotations. We evaluate our model on the challenging TVQA dataset, where each of our model components provides significant gains, and our overall model outperforms the state-of-the-art by a large margin (74.09% versus 70.52%). We also present several word, object, and frame level visualization studies. 
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  5. The Visual Dialog task requires a model to exploit both im- age and conversational context information to generate the next response to the dialogue. However, via manual analysis, we find that a large number of conversational questions can be answered by only looking at the image without any access to the context history, while others still need the conversa- tion context to predict the correct answers. We demonstrate that due to this reason, previous joint-modality (history and image) models over-rely on and are more prone to memoriz- ing the dialogue history (e.g., by extracting certain keywords or patterns in the context information), whereas image-only models are more generalizable (because they cannot memo- rize or extract keywords from history) and perform substan- tially better at the primary normalized discounted cumula- tive gain (NDCG) task metric which allows multiple correct answers. Hence, this observation encourages us to explic- itly maintain two models, i.e., an image-only model and an image-history joint model, and combine their complementary abilities for a more balanced multimodal model. We present multiple methods for this integration of the two models, via ensemble and consensus dropout fusion with shared param- eters. Empirically, our models achieve strong results on the Visual Dialog challenge 2019 (rank 3 on NDCG and high bal- ance across metrics), and substantially outperform the winner of the Visual Dialog challenge 2018 on most metrics. 
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  6. Paragraph-style image captions describe diverse aspects of an image as opposed to the more common single-sentence captions that only provide an abstract description of the image. These paragraph captions can hence contain substantial information of the image for tasks such as visual question answering. Moreover, this textual information is complementary with visual information present in the image because it can discuss both more abstract concepts and more explicit, intermediate symbolic information about objects, events, and scenes that can directly be matched with the textual question and copied into the textual answer (i.e., via easier modality match). Hence, we propose a combined Visual and Textual Question Answering (VTQA) model which takes as input a paragraph caption as well as the corresponding image, and answers the given question based on both inputs. In our model, the inputs are fused to extract related information by cross-attention (early fusion), then fused again in the form of consensus (late fusion), and finally expected answers are given an extra score to enhance the chance of selection (later fusion). Empirical results show that paragraph captions, even when automatically generated (via an RL-based encoder-decoder model), help correctly answer more visual questions. Overall, our joint model, when trained on the Visual Genome dataset, significantly improves the VQA performance over a strong baseline model. 
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