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Creators/Authors contains: "Kolobov, Vladimir I"

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  1. Abstract

    We have performed hybrid kinetic-fluid simulations of a positive column in alternating current (AC) argon discharges over a range of driving frequenciesfand gas pressurepfor the conditions when the spatial nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is substantial. Our simulations confirmed that the most efficient conditions of plasma maintenance are observed in the dynamic regime when time modulations of mean electron energy (temperature) are substantial. The minimal values of the root mean square electric field and the electron temperature have been observed atf/pvalues of about 3 kHz Torr−1in a tube of radiusR= 1 cm. The ionization rate and plasma density reached maximal values under these conditions. The numerical solution of a kinetic equation allowed accounting for the kinetic effects associated with spatial and temporal nonlocality of the EEDF. Using thekineticenergy of electrons as an independent variable, we solved an anisotropic tensor diffusion equation in phase space. We clarified the role of different flux components during electron diffusion in phase space over surfaces of constanttotalenergy. We have shown that the kinetic theory uncovers a more exciting and rich physics than the classical ambipolar diffusion (Schottky) model. Non-monotonic radial distributions of excitation rates, metastable densities, and plasma density have been observed in our simulations atpR >6 Torr cm. The predicted off-axis plasma density peak in the dynamic regime has never been observed in experiments so far. We hope our results stimulate further experimental studies of the AC positive column. The kinetic analysis could help uncover new physics even for such a well-known plasma object as a positive column in noble gases.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Self-Organized Patterns (SOPs) at plasma-liquid interface in atmospheric pressure plasma discharges refer to the formation of intricate and puzzling structures due to the interplay of electrodynamic and hydrodynamic processes. Studies conducted to date have shown that this phenomenon results in the formation of distinctive patterns such as circular ring, star, gear, dots, spikes, etc., and primarily depends on working gas, electrolyte type, gap distance, current, conductivity, etc. However, an adequate understanding of how these patterns change from one type to another is still not available. This study aims to elucidate the influence of initial liquid conductance ( σ i ) on the temporal evolution of SOPs in liquid-anode discharges. The discharge was generated in a pin-to-liquid anode configuration at a constant helium (He) flow rate of 500 sccm and DC applied voltage of 6 kV at a gap distance of 12 mm. Through the gradual increment of σ i from 1.8 μ S to 4820 μ S, we observe that the trend in the evolution of SOPS takes place as solid discs, spikes, dots, rings, double rings, and stars. The continuous formation of reactive species onto the liquid anode in all conductive solutions results in a decrease in pH, an increase in bulk liquid temperature, and an increase in total dissolved solutes, and these have been confirmed through experimental measurements. Observations using optical emission spectroscopy show that the electrons at the plasma-liquid interface participate in the reduction of cations followed by their excitation & ionization due to which electron density as well as emissions from excited species (mainly hydroxyl radicals & excited nitrogen) decrease with time. Our investigation provides experimental evidence on the presence of cations at the plasma-liquid interface required for SOP formation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 7, 2024
  3. Abstract Electron beams that are commonly observed in the corona were discovered to be associated with solar flares. These “coronal” electron beams are found ≥300 Mm above the acceleration region and have velocities ranging from 0.1 c up to 0.6 c . However, the mechanism for producing these beams remains unclear. In this paper, we use kinetic transport theory to investigate how isotropic suprathermal energetic electrons escaping from the acceleration region of flares are transported upwardly along the magnetic field lines of flares to develop coronal electron beams. We find that magnetic focusing can suppress the diffusion of Coulomb collisions and background turbulence and sharply collimate the suprathermal electron distribution into beams with the observed velocity within the observed distance. A higher bulk velocity is produced if energetic electrons have harder energy spectra or travel along a more rapidly expanding coronal magnetic field. By modeling the observed velocity and location distributions of coronal electron beams, we predict that the temperature of acceleration regions ranges from 5 × 10 6 to 2 × 10 7 K. Our model also indicates that the acceleration region may have a boundary where the temperature abruptly decreases so that the electron beam velocity can become more than triple (even up to 10 times) the background thermal velocity and produce the coronal type III radio bursts. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 22, 2024
  4. Abstract This article is devoted to the memory of Yuri P Raizer, who passed away in 2021. He left a noticeable trace in gas discharge physics. The principle of minimal power (the state that requires minimal power is most probable) is thoroughly used in his books. Although the fundamental laws of physics do not imply this ad hoc principle, a detailed analysis of underlying phenomena can often reveal why nature prefers this path. Raizer illustrated this principle for plasma stratification, formation of electrode spots, discharge constriction, the shape of an arc channel, etc. We argue that the nonlinearity of equations describing gas discharges can often justify the realization of a plasma state maintained at minimal electric power. This nonlinearity appears because small groups of energetic electrons often control the ionization processes. The number of these electrons depends strongly on the ratio of the electric field to gas density, E / N . Under certain conditions, the ionization rate can also depend nonlinearly on electron density due to stepwise ionization and Coulomb collisions. We use the principle of minimal power to illustrate some of Raizer’s contributions to gas discharge physics from a single point of view. We demonstrate that nonlinearity of ionization processes in gas discharges can substantiate this principle for plasma stratification. However, striations of s , p , and r types in neon could exist with minimal or no ionization enhancement. This reminds us of Raizer’s warning that applying the minimal power principle could lead to erroneous predictions, and a proper theory is required in each case to justify its use. ‘The phenomenon of striations satisfies the principle of minimal power’ – Yuri Raizer 
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  5. Abstract The electron VDF in the solar wind consists of a Maxwellian core, a suprathermal halo, a field-aligned component strahl, and an energetic superhalo that deviates from the equilibrium. Whistler wave turbulence is thought to resonantly scatter the observed electron velocity distribution. Wave–particle interactions that contribute to Whistler wave turbulence are introduced into a Fokker–Planck kinetic transport equation that describes the interaction between the suprathermal electrons and the Whistler waves. A recent numerical approach for solving the Fokker–Planck kinetic transport equation has been extended to include a full diffusion tensor. Application of the extended numerical approach to the transport of solar wind suprathermal electrons influenced by Whistler wave turbulence is presented. Comparison and analysis of the numerical results with observations and diagonal-only model results are made. The off-diagonal terms in the diffusion tensor act to depress effects caused by the diagonal terms. The role of the diffusion coefficient on the electron heat flux is discussed. 
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  6. Abstract Plasma stratification has been studied for more than a century. Despite the many experimental studies reported on this topic, theoretical analyses and numerical modeling of this phenomenon have been mostly limited to rare gases. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model with detailed kinetics of electrons and vibrationally excited molecules is employed to simulate moderate-pressure (i.e. a few Torrs) dc discharge in nitrogen in a 15.5 cm long tube of radius 0.55 cm. The model also considers ambipolar diffusion to account for the radial loss of ions and electrons to the wall. The proposed model predicts self-excited standing striations in nitrogen for a range of discharge currents. The impact of electron transport parameters and reaction rates obtained from a solution of local two-term and a multi-term Boltzmann equation on the predictions are assessed. In-depth kinetic analysis indicates that the striations result from the undulations in electron temperature caused due to the interaction between ionization and vibrational reactions. Furthermore, the vibrationally excited molecules associated with the lower energy levels are found to influence nitrogen plasma stratification and the striation pattern strongly. A balance between ionization processes and electron energy transport allows the formation of the observed standing striations. Simulations were conducted for a range of discharge current densities from ∼0.018 to 0.080 mA cm −2 , for an operating pressure of 0.7 Torr. Parametric studies show that the striation length decreases with increasing discharge current. The predictions from the model are compared against experimental measurements and are found to agree favorably. 
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  7. null (Ed.)