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  1. Abstract

    We analyze the photometric data in the Wide layer of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) over ∼1200 deg2 to uncover new halo substructures beyond the distance, D⊙ ∼ 30 kpc, from the Sun. For this purpose, we develop an isochrone filter for an old, metal-poor stellar system to extract the faint main-sequence stars at a range of distances. With this method, we detect not only the previously discovered substructures such as the Orphan Stream, but also a new overdensity toward Boötes at about D⊙ ∼ 60 kpc and a new stream-like feature toward Pisces at around D⊙ ∼ 60 kpc. It has been suggested that a small-scale overdensity exists in this direction of Pisces (the so-called Pisces Overdensity), but our results show that the overdensity is widely spread with a tidally elongated feature. Combining our results with the ongoing Hyper Suprime-Cam narrow-band survey and the near-future spectroscopic survey with Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) will allow us to place strong constraints on the origin of these halo substructures.

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  2. Abstract

    This is the first in a series of papers on the properties of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) in clusters of galaxies. We present an updated catalog of UDGs in the Coma Cluster usingg- andr-band images obtained with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) of the Subaru telescope. We develop a method to find UDGs even in the presence of contaminating objects, such as halos and background galaxies. This study expands upon our previous works that covered about half the area of the Coma Cluster. The HSC observations covered the whole Coma Cluster up to the virial radius and beyond (an area twice as large as the previous studies) and doubled the numbers of UDGs (reff, r≥ 1.5 kpc) and sub-UDGs (1.0 ≤reff, r< 1.5 kpc) to 774 and 729, respectively. The new UDGs show internal properties consistent with those of previous studies (e.g., a Sérsic index of approximately 1), and are distributed across the cluster, with a concentration around the cluster center. The whole cluster coverage clearly revealed an excess of their distribution toward the east to southwest direction along the cluster center, where Coma connects to other large-scale structure, and where a known substructure exists (the NGC 4839 subgroup). The alignment of the UDG distribution along the large-scale structure around Coma supports the interpretation that most of them lie at the distance of the Coma Cluster and the NGC 4839 subgroup.

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  3. Abstract We present UV and Ly α radial surface brightness (SB) profiles of Ly α emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.84 detected with the Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The depth of our data, together with the wide-field coverage including a protocluster, enable us to study the dependence of Ly α halos (LAHs) on various galaxy properties, including Mpc scale environments. UV and Ly α images of 3490 LAEs are extracted, and stacking the images yields SB sensitivity of ∼ 1 × 10 − 20 erg s − 1 cm − 2 arcsec − 2 in Ly α , reaching the expected level of optically thick gas illuminated by the UV background at z ∼ 3. Fitting of the two-component exponential function gives the scale-lengths of 1.56 ± 0.01 and 10.4 ± 0.3 pkpc. Dividing the sample according to their photometric properties, we find that, while the dependence of halo scale-length on environment outside of the protocluster core is not clear, LAEs in the central regions of protoclusters appear to have very large LAHs, which could be caused by combined effects of source overlapping and diffuse Ly α emission from cool intergalactic gas permeating the forming protocluster core irradiated by active members. For the first time, we identify UV halos around bright LAEs that are probably due to a few lower-mass satellite galaxies. Through comparison with recent numerical simulations, we conclude that, while scattered Ly α photons from the host galaxies are dominant, star formation in satellites evidently contributes to LAHs, and that fluorescent Ly α emission may be boosted within protocluster cores at cosmic noon and/or near bright QSOs. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We report a CO(J= 3−2) detection of 23 molecular clouds in the extended ultraviolet (XUV) disk of the spiral galaxy M83 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The observed 1 kpc2region is at about 1.24 times the optical radius (R25) of the disk, where CO(J= 2–1) was previously not detected. The detection and nondetection, as well as the level of star formation (SF) activity in the region, can be explained consistently if the clouds have the mass distribution common among Galactic clouds, such as Orion A—with star-forming dense clumps embedded in thick layers of bulk molecular gas, but in a low-metallicity regime where their outer layers are CO-deficient and CO-dark. The cloud and clump masses, estimated from CO(3−2), range from 8.2 × 102to 2.3 × 104Mand from 2.7 × 102to 7.5 × 103M, respectively. The most massive clouds appear similar to Orion A in star formation activity as well as in mass, as expected if the cloud mass structure is common. The overall low SF activity in the XUV disk could be due to the relative shortage of gas in the molecular phase. The clouds are distributed like chains up to 600 pc (or longer) in length, suggesting that the trigger of cloud formation is on large scales. The common cloud mass structure also justifies the use of high-JCO transitions to trace the total gas mass of clouds, or galaxies, even in the high-zuniverse. This study is the first demonstration that CO(3−2) is an efficient tracer of molecular clouds even in low-metallicity environments.

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  5. Abstract

    We  present the demography of the dynamics and gas mass fraction of 33 extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with metallicities of 0.015–0.195Zand low stellar masses of 104–108Min the local universe. We conduct deep optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for the low-mass EMPGs with the medium-high resolution (R= 7500) grism of the 8 m Subaru FOCAS IFU instrument by the EMPRESS 3D survey, and investigate the Hαemission of the EMPGs. Exploiting the resolution high enough for the low-mass galaxies, we derive gas dynamics with the Hαlines by the fitting of three-dimensional disk models. We obtain an average maximum rotation velocity (vrot) of 15 ± 3 km s−1and an average intrinsic velocity dispersion (σ0) of 27 ± 10 km s−1for 15 spatially resolved EMPGs out of 33 EMPGs, and find that all 15 EMPGs havevrot/σ0< 1 suggesting dispersion-dominated systems. There is a clear decreasing trend ofvrot/σ0with the decreasing stellar mass and metallicity. We derive the gas mass fraction (fgas) for all 33 EMPGs, and find no clear dependence on stellar mass and metallicity. Thesevrot/σ0andfgastrends should be compared with young high-zgalaxies observed by the forthcoming JWST IFS programs to understand the physical origins of the EMPGs in the local universe.

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  6. Abstract

    We present the statistical redshift distribution of a large sample of low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies identified in the first 200 deg2of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program. Through cross-correlation with the NASA–SDSS Atlas, we find that the majority of objects lie withinz< 0.15 or ∼500 Mpc, yielding a mass range ofM*≈ 107−109Mand a size range ofreff,g≈ 1−8 kpc. We find a peak in the distance distribution within 100 Mpc, corresponding mostly to ∼107Mgalaxies that fall on the known mass–size relation. There is also a tail in the redshift distribution out toz≈ 0.15, comprising more massive (M*= 108− 109M) galaxies at the larger end of our size range. We see tentative evidence that at the higher-mass end (M*> 108M), the LSB galaxies do not form a smooth extension of the mass–size relation of higher-surface-brightness galaxies, perhaps suggesting that the LSB galaxy population is distinct in its formation path.

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  7. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Recent studies have highlighted the potential significance of intracluster medium (ICM) clumping and its important implications for cluster cosmology and baryon physics. Many of the ICM clumps can originate from infalling galaxies, as stripped interstellar medium (ISM) mixing into the hot ICM. However, a direct connection between ICM clumping and stripped ISM has not been unambiguously established before. Here, we present the discovery of the first and still the only known isolated cloud (or orphan cloud [OC]) detected in both X-rays and H α in the nearby cluster A1367. With an effective radius of 30 kpc, this cloud has an average X-ray temperature of 1.6 keV, a bolometric X-ray luminosity of ∼3.1 × 1041 erg s−1, and a hot gas mass of ∼1010 M⊙. From the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) data, the OC shows an interesting velocity gradient nearly along the east-west direction with a low level of velocity dispersion of ∼80 km s−1, which may suggest a low level of the ICM turbulence. The emission line diagnostics suggest little star formation in the main H α cloud and a low-ionization (nuclear) emission-line regions like spectrum, but the excitation mechanisms remain unclear. This example shows that stripped ISM, even long after the initial removal from the galaxy, can still induce ICM inhomogeneities. We suggest that the magnetic field can stabilize the OC by suppressing hydrodynamic instabilities and thermal conduction. This example also suggests that at least some ICM clumps are multiphase in nature and implies that the ICM clumps can also be traced in H α. Thus, future deep and wide-field H α surveys can be used to probe the ICM clumping and turbulence. 
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  8. Abstract

    We present kinematics of six local extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with low metallicities (0.016–0.098Z) and low stellar masses (104.7–107.6M). Taking deep medium/high-resolution (R∼ 7500) integral-field spectra with 8.2 m Subaru, we resolve the small inner velocity gradients and dispersions of the EMPGs with Hαemission. Carefully masking out substructures originating by inflow and/or outflow, we fit three-dimensional disk models to the observed Hαflux, velocity, and velocity dispersion maps. All the EMPGs show rotational velocities (vrot) of 5–23 km s−1smaller than the velocity dispersions (σ0) of 17–31 km s−1, indicating dispersion-dominated (vrot/σ0= 0.29–0.80 < 1) systems affected by inflow and/or outflow. Except for two EMPGs with large uncertainties, we find that the EMPGs have very large gas-mass fractions offgas≃ 0.9–1.0. Comparing our results with other Hαkinematics studies, we find thatvrot/σ0decreases andfgasincreases with decreasing metallicity, decreasing stellar mass, and increasing specific star formation rate. We also find that simulated high-z(z∼ 7) forming galaxies have gas fractions and dynamics similar to the observed EMPGs. Our EMPG observations and the simulations suggest that primordial galaxies are gas-rich dispersion-dominated systems, which would be identified by the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations atz∼ 7.

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  9. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We present measurements of cosmic shear two-point correlation functions (TPCFs) from Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC) first-year data, and derive cosmological constraints based on a blind analysis. The HSC first-year shape catalog is divided into four tomographic redshift bins ranging from $z=0.3$ to 1.5 with equal widths of $\Delta z =0.3$. The unweighted galaxy number densities in each tomographic bin are 5.9, 5.9, 4.3, and $2.4\:$arcmin$^{-2}$ from the lowest to highest redshifts, respectively. We adopt the standard TPCF estimators, $\xi _\pm$, for our cosmological analysis, given that we find no evidence of significant B-mode shear. The TPCFs are detected at high significance for all 10 combinations of auto- and cross-tomographic bins over a wide angular range, yielding a total signal-to-noise ratio of 19 in the angular ranges adopted in the cosmological analysis, $7^{\prime }<\theta <56^{\prime }$ for $\xi _+$ and $28^{\prime }<\theta <178^{\prime }$ for $\xi _-$. We perform the standard Bayesian likelihood analysis for cosmological inference from the measured cosmic shear TPCFs, including contributions from intrinsic alignment of galaxies as well as systematic effects from PSF model errors, shear calibration uncertainty, and source redshift distribution errors. We adopt a covariance matrix derived from realistic mock catalogs constructed from full-sky gravitational lensing simulations that fully account for survey geometry and measurement noise. For a flat $\Lambda$ cold dark matter model, we find $S\,_8 \equiv \sigma _8\sqrt{\Omega _{\rm m}/0.3}=0.804_{-0.029}^{+0.032}$, and $\Omega _{\rm m}=0.346_{-0.100}^{+0.052}$. We carefully check the robustness of the cosmological results against astrophysical modeling uncertainties and systematic uncertainties in measurements, and find that none of them has a significant impact on the cosmological constraints. 
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