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  1. Abstract

    We present the statistical redshift distribution of a large sample of low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies identified in the first 200 deg2of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program. Through cross-correlation with the NASA–SDSS Atlas, we find that the majority of objects lie withinz< 0.15 or ∼500 Mpc, yielding a mass range ofM*≈ 107−109Mand a size range ofreff,g≈ 1−8 kpc. We find a peak in the distance distribution within 100 Mpc, corresponding mostly to ∼107Mgalaxies that fall on the known mass–size relation. There is also a tail in the redshift distribution out toz≈ 0.15, comprising more massive (M*= 108− 109M) galaxies at the larger end of our size range. We see tentative evidence that at the higher-mass end (M*> 108M), the LSB galaxies do not form a smooth extension of the mass–size relation of higher-surface-brightness galaxies, perhaps suggesting that the LSB galaxy population is distinct in its formation path.

  2. ABSTRACT Recent studies have highlighted the potential significance of intracluster medium (ICM) clumping and its important implications for cluster cosmology and baryon physics. Many of the ICM clumps can originate from infalling galaxies, as stripped interstellar medium (ISM) mixing into the hot ICM. However, a direct connection between ICM clumping and stripped ISM has not been unambiguously established before. Here, we present the discovery of the first and still the only known isolated cloud (or orphan cloud [OC]) detected in both X-rays and H α in the nearby cluster A1367. With an effective radius of 30 kpc, this cloud has an average X-ray temperature of 1.6 keV, a bolometric X-ray luminosity of ∼3.1 × 1041 erg s−1, and a hot gas mass of ∼1010 M⊙. From the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) data, the OC shows an interesting velocity gradient nearly along the east-west direction with a low level of velocity dispersion of ∼80 km s−1, which may suggest a low level of the ICM turbulence. The emission line diagnostics suggest little star formation in the main H α cloud and a low-ionization (nuclear) emission-line regions like spectrum, but the excitation mechanisms remain unclear. This example shows that stripped ISM, even long after the initial removal from the galaxy, can still inducemore »ICM inhomogeneities. We suggest that the magnetic field can stabilize the OC by suppressing hydrodynamic instabilities and thermal conduction. This example also suggests that at least some ICM clumps are multiphase in nature and implies that the ICM clumps can also be traced in H α. Thus, future deep and wide-field H α surveys can be used to probe the ICM clumping and turbulence.« less
  3. Abstract We present measurements of cosmic shear two-point correlation functions (TPCFs) from Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC) first-year data, and derive cosmological constraints based on a blind analysis. The HSC first-year shape catalog is divided into four tomographic redshift bins ranging from $z=0.3$ to 1.5 with equal widths of $\Delta z =0.3$. The unweighted galaxy number densities in each tomographic bin are 5.9, 5.9, 4.3, and $2.4\:$arcmin$^{-2}$ from the lowest to highest redshifts, respectively. We adopt the standard TPCF estimators, $\xi _\pm$, for our cosmological analysis, given that we find no evidence of significant B-mode shear. The TPCFs are detected at high significance for all 10 combinations of auto- and cross-tomographic bins over a wide angular range, yielding a total signal-to-noise ratio of 19 in the angular ranges adopted in the cosmological analysis, $7^{\prime }<\theta <56^{\prime }$ for $\xi _+$ and $28^{\prime }<\theta <178^{\prime }$ for $\xi _-$. We perform the standard Bayesian likelihood analysis for cosmological inference from the measured cosmic shear TPCFs, including contributions from intrinsic alignment of galaxies as well as systematic effects from PSF model errors, shear calibration uncertainty, and source redshift distribution errors. We adopt a covariance matrix derived from realistic mock catalogs constructedmore »from full-sky gravitational lensing simulations that fully account for survey geometry and measurement noise. For a flat $\Lambda$ cold dark matter model, we find $S\,_8 \equiv \sigma _8\sqrt{\Omega _{\rm m}/0.3}=0.804_{-0.029}^{+0.032}$, and $\Omega _{\rm m}=0.346_{-0.100}^{+0.052}$. We carefully check the robustness of the cosmological results against astrophysical modeling uncertainties and systematic uncertainties in measurements, and find that none of them has a significant impact on the cosmological constraints.« less
  4. Abstract

    We present the large-scale structure over a more than 50 comoving Mpc scale at $z \sim 0.9$ where the CL1604 supercluster, which is one of the largest structures ever known at high redshifts, is embedded. The wide-field deep imaging survey by the Subaru Strategic Program with the Hyper Suprime-Cam reveals that the already-known CL1604 supercluster is a mere part of larger-scale structure extending to both the north and the south. We confirm that there are galaxy clusters at three slightly different redshifts in the northern and southern sides of the supercluster by determining the redshifts of 55 red-sequence galaxies and 82 star-forming galaxies in total via follow-up spectroscopy with Subaru/FOCAS and Gemini-N/GMOS. This suggests that the structure known as the CL1604 supercluster is the tip of the iceberg. We investigate the stellar population of the red-sequence galaxies using 4000 Å break and Balmer H$\delta$ absorption lines. Almost all of the red-sequence galaxies brighter than $21.5\:$mag in the z band show an old stellar population of $\gtrsim\! 2\:$Gyr. The comparison of composite spectra of the red-sequence galaxies in the individual clusters show that the galaxies at a similar redshift have a similar stellar population age, even if they are located $\sim\!more »50\:$Mpc apart from each other. However, there could be a large variation in the star formation history. Therefore, it is likely that galaxies associated with the large-scale structure on a 50 Mpc scale formed at almost the same time, have assembled into the denser regions, and then have evolved with different star formation history along the hierarchical growth of the cosmic web.

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