An H α/X-ray orphan cloud as a signpost of intracluster medium clumping
ABSTRACT Recent studies have highlighted the potential significance of intracluster medium (ICM) clumping and its important implications for cluster cosmology and baryon physics. Many of the ICM clumps can originate from infalling galaxies, as stripped interstellar medium (ISM) mixing into the hot ICM. However, a direct connection between ICM clumping and stripped ISM has not been unambiguously established before. Here, we present the discovery of the first and still the only known isolated cloud (or orphan cloud [OC]) detected in both X-rays and H α in the nearby cluster A1367. With an effective radius of 30 kpc, this cloud has an average X-ray temperature of 1.6 keV, a bolometric X-ray luminosity of ∼3.1 × 1041 erg s−1, and a hot gas mass of ∼1010 M⊙. From the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) data, the OC shows an interesting velocity gradient nearly along the east-west direction with a low level of velocity dispersion of ∼80 km s−1, which may suggest a low level of the ICM turbulence. The emission line diagnostics suggest little star formation in the main H α cloud and a low-ionization (nuclear) emission-line regions like spectrum, but the excitation mechanisms remain unclear. This example shows that stripped ISM, even long after the initial removal from the galaxy, can still induce more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10285165
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
505
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
4702 to 4716
ISSN:
0035-8711
Quasar absorption-line studies in the ultraviolet (UV) can uniquely probe the nature of the multiphase cool–warm (104 < T < 106 K) gas in and around galaxy clusters, promising to provide unprecedented insights into (1) interactions between the circumgalactic medium (CGM) associated with infalling galaxies and the hot (T > 106 K) X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM), (2) the stripping of metal-rich gas from the CGM, and (3) a multiphase structure of the ICM with a wide range of temperatures and metallicities. In this work, we present results from a high-resolution simulation of an $\sim 10^{14} \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ galaxy cluster to study the physical properties and observable signatures of this cool–warm gas in galaxy clusters. We show that the ICM becomes increasingly multiphased at large radii, with the cool–warm gas becoming dominant in cluster outskirts. The diffuse cool–warm gas also exhibits a wider range of metallicity than the hot X-ray emitting gas. We make predictions for the covering fractions of key absorption-line tracers, both in the ICM and in the CGM of cluster galaxies, typically observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We further extract synthetic spectra to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting and characterizingmore »