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  1. Abstract

    Transformation of low-volatility gaseous precursors to new particles affects aerosol number concentration, cloud formation and hence the climate. The clustering of acid and base molecules is a major mechanism driving fast nucleation and initial growth of new particles in the atmosphere. However, the acid–base cluster composition, measured using state-of-the-art mass spectrometers, cannot explain the measured high formation rate of new particles. Here we present strong evidence for the existence of base molecules such as amines in the smallest atmospheric sulfuric acid clusters prior to their detection by mass spectrometers. We demonstrate that forming (H2SO4)1(amine)1 is the rate-limiting step in atmospheric H2SO4-amine nucleation and the uptake of (H2SO4)1(amine)1 is a major pathway for the initial growth of H2SO4 clusters. The proposed mechanism is very consistent with measured new particle formation in urban Beijing, in which dimethylamine is the key base for H2SO4 nucleation while other bases such as ammonia may contribute to the growth of larger clusters. Our findings further underline the fact that strong amines, even at low concentrations and when undetected in the smallest clusters, can be crucial to particle formation in the planetary boundary layer.

  2. Abstract Iodine is a reactive trace element in atmospheric chemistry that destroys ozone and nucleates particles. Iodine emissions have tripled since 1950 and are projected to keep increasing with rising O 3 surface concentrations. Although iodic acid (HIO 3 ) is widespread and forms particles more efficiently than sulfuric acid, its gas-phase formation mechanism remains unresolved. Here, in CLOUD atmospheric simulation chamber experiments that generate iodine radicals at atmospherically relevant rates, we show that iodooxy hypoiodite, IOIO, is efficiently converted into HIO 3 via reactions (R1) IOIO + O 3  → IOIO 4 and (R2) IOIO 4  + H 2 O → HIO 3  + HOI +  (1) O 2 . The laboratory-derived reaction rate coefficients are corroborated by theory and shown to explain field observations of daytime HIO 3 in the remote lower free troposphere. The mechanism provides a missing link between iodine sources and particle formation. Because particulate iodate is readily reduced, recycling iodine back into the gas phase, our results suggest a catalytic role of iodine in aerosol formation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 14, 2023
  3. Abstract. The molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organiccompounds were investigated during April–July 2019 at the Station forMeasuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR) II situated in a borealforest in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. In order to obtain a morecomplete picture and full understanding of the molecular composition andvolatility of ambient gaseous organic compounds (from volatile organiccompounds, VOCs, to highly oxygenated organic molecules, HOMs), twodifferent instruments were used. A Vocus proton-transfer-reactiontime-of-flight mass spectrometer (Vocus PTR-ToF; hereafter Vocus) wasdeployed to measure VOCs and less oxygenated VOCs (i.e., OVOCs). Inaddition, a multi-scheme chemical ionization inlet coupled to an atmosphericpressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MION API-ToF) was usedto detect less oxygenated VOCs (using Br− as the reagent ion; hereafterMION-Br) and more oxygenated VOCs (including HOMs; using NO3- asthe reagent ion; hereafter MION-NO3). The comparison among differentmeasurement techniques revealed that the highest elemental oxygen-to-carbonratios (O : C) of organic compounds were observed by the MION-NO3 (0.9 ± 0.1, average ± 1 standard deviation), followed by the MION-Br(0.8 ± 0.1); lowest O : C ratios were observed by Vocus (0.2 ± 0.1). Diurnal patternsof the measured organic compounds were found to vary among differentmeasurement techniques, even for compounds with the same molecular formula,suggesting contributions of different isomers detected by the differenttechniques and/or fragmentation from different parent compounds inside theinstruments.more »Based on the complementary molecular information obtained fromVocus, MION-Br, and MION-NO3, a more complete picture of the bulkvolatility of all measured organic compounds in this boreal forest wasobtained. As expected, the VOC class was the most abundant (about 53.2 %), followed by intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs, about45.9 %). Although condensable organic compounds (low-volatility organiccompounds, LVOCs; extremely low volatility organic compounds, ELVOCs; andultralow-volatility organic compounds, ULVOCs) only comprised about 0.2 %of the total gaseous organic compounds, they play an important role in newparticle formation as shown in previous studies in this boreal forest. Ourstudy shows the full characterization of the gaseous organic compounds inthe boreal forest and the advantages of combining Vocus and MION API-ToF formeasuring ambient organic compounds with different oxidation extents (fromVOCs to HOMs). The results therefore provide a more comprehensiveunderstanding of the molecular composition and volatility of atmosphericorganic compounds as well as new insights into interpreting ambientmeasurements or testing/improving parameterizations in transport and climatemodels.« less
  4. Intense new particle formation events are regularly observed under highly polluted conditions, despite the high loss rates of nucleated clusters. Higher than expected cluster survival probability implies either ineffective scavenging by pre-existing particles or missing growth mechanisms. Here we present experiments performed in the CLOUD chamber at CERN showing particle formation from a mixture of anthropogenic vapours, under condensation sinks typical of haze conditions, up to 0.1 s −1 . We find that new particle formation rates substantially decrease at higher concentrations of pre-existing particles, demonstrating experimentally for the first time that molecular clusters are efficiently scavenged by larger sized particles. Additionally, we demonstrate that in the presence of supersaturated gas-phase nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ), freshly nucleated particles can grow extremely rapidly, maintaining a high particle number concentration, even in the presence of a high condensation sink. Such high growth rates may explain the high survival probability of freshly formed particles under haze conditions. We identify under what typical urban conditions HNO 3 and NH 3 can be expected to contribute to particle survival during haze.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  5. Abstract. Iodine species are important in the marine atmosphere foroxidation and new-particle formation. Understanding iodine chemistry andiodine new-particle formation requires high time resolution, highsensitivity, and simultaneous measurements of many iodine species. Here, wedescribe the application of a bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometer(Br-CIMS) to this task. During the iodine oxidation experiments in theCosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber, we have measured gas-phaseiodine species and sulfuric acid using two Br-CIMS, one coupled to aMulti-scheme chemical IONization inlet (Br-MION-CIMS) and the other to aFilter Inlet for Gasses and AEROsols inlet (Br-FIGAERO-CIMS). From offlinecalibrations and intercomparisons with other instruments, we havequantified the sensitivities of the Br-MION-CIMS to HOI, I2, andH2SO4 and obtained detection limits of 5.8 × 106,3.8 × 105, and 2.0 × 105 molec. cm−3,respectively, for a 2 min integration time. From binding energycalculations, we estimate the detection limit for HIO3 to be1.2 × 105 molec. cm−3, based on an assumption of maximumsensitivity. Detection limits in the Br-FIGAERO-CIMS are around 1 order ofmagnitude higher than those in the Br-MION-CIMS; for example, the detectionlimits for HOI and HIO3 are 3.3 × 107 and 5.1 × 106 molec. cm−3, respectively. Our comparisons of the performanceof the MION inlet and the FIGAERO inlet show that bromide chemicalionization mass spectrometers using either atmospheric pressure or reducedpressure interfaces are well-matched to measuring iodine species andsulfuric acid in marinemore »environments.« less
  6. Abstract. In the aqueous phase, fine particulate matter can form reactive species (RS)that influence the aging, properties, and health effects of atmosphericaerosols. In this study, we explore the RS yields of aerosol samples froma remote forest (Hyytiälä, Finland) and polluted urban locations(Mainz, Germany; Beijing, China), and we relate the RS yields to differentchemical constituents and reaction mechanisms. Ultra-high-resolution massspectrometry was used to characterize organic aerosol composition, electronparamagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with a spin-trapping technique wasapplied to determine the concentrations of ⚫OH,O2⚫-, and carbon- or oxygen-centered organic radicals, anda fluorometric assay was used to quantify H2O2. The aqueousH2O2-forming potential per mass unit of ambient PM2.5(particle diameter < 2.5 µm) was roughly the same for allinvestigated samples, whereas the mass-specific yields of radicals werelower for sampling sites with higher concentrations of PM2.5. Theabundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in ambientPM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of⚫OH and negatively correlated with the relative fraction ofcarbon-centered radicals. In contrast, highly oxygenated organic molecules(HOM) were positively correlated with the relative fraction ofcarbon-centered radicals and negatively correlated with the relativefraction of ⚫OH. Moreover, we found that the relative fractionsof different types of radicals formed by ambient PM2.5 were comparableto surrogate mixtures comprising transition metal ions,more »organichydroperoxide, H2O2, and humic or fulvic acids. The interplay oftransition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper ions), highly oxidized organicmolecules (e.g., hydroperoxides), and complexing or scavenging agents (e.g.,humic or fulvic acids) leads to nonlinear concentration dependencies inaqueous-phase RS production. A strong dependence on chemical compositionwas also observed for the aqueous-phase radical yields oflaboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from precursormixtures of naphthalene and β-pinene. Our findings show how thecomposition of PM2.5 can influence the amount and nature ofaqueous-phase RS, which may explain differences in the chemical reactivityand health effects of particulate matter in clean and polluted air.« less
  7. Abstract New particle formation in the upper free troposphere is a major global source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) 1–4 . However, the precursor vapours that drive the process are not well understood. With experiments performed under upper tropospheric conditions in the CERN CLOUD chamber, we show that nitric acid, sulfuric acid and ammonia form particles synergistically, at rates that are orders of magnitude faster than those from any two of the three components. The importance of this mechanism depends on the availability of ammonia, which was previously thought to be efficiently scavenged by cloud droplets during convection. However, surprisingly high concentrations of ammonia and ammonium nitrate have recently been observed in the upper troposphere over the Asian monsoon region 5,6 . Once particles have formed, co-condensation of ammonia and abundant nitric acid alone is sufficient to drive rapid growth to CCN sizes with only trace sulfate. Moreover, our measurements show that these CCN are also highly efficient ice nucleating particles—comparable to desert dust. Our model simulations confirm that ammonia is efficiently convected aloft during the Asian monsoon, driving rapid, multi-acid HNO 3 –H 2 SO 4 –NH 3 nucleation in the upper troposphere and producing ice nucleating particles thatmore »spread across the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  8. Aerosol particles negatively affect human health while also having climatic relevance due to, for example, their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Ultrafine particles (diameter D p < 100 nm) typically comprise the largest fraction of the total number concentration, however, their chemical characterization is difficult because of their low mass. Using an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), we characterize the molecular composition of freshly nucleated particles from naphthalene and β-caryophyllene oxidation products at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We perform a detailed intercomparison of the organic aerosol chemical composition measured by the EESI-TOF and an iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO-I-CIMS). We also use an aerosol growth model based on the condensation of organic vapors to show that the chemical composition measured by the EESI-TOF is consistent with the expected condensed oxidation products. This agreement could be further improved by constraining the EESI-TOF compound-specific sensitivity or considering condensed-phase processes. Our results show that the EESI-TOF can obtain the chemical composition of particles as small as 20 nm in diameter with mass loadings as low as hundreds of ng m −3 in real time. This was until nowmore »difficult to achieve, as other online instruments are often limited by size cutoffs, ionization/thermal fragmentation and/or semi-continuous sampling. Using real-time simultaneous gas- and particle-phase data, we discuss the condensation of naphthalene oxidation products on a molecular level.« less