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  1. Abstract

    The joint influence of the stratospheric quasi‐biennial oscillation (QBO) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the polar vortex, subtropical westerly jets (STJs), and wave patterns during boreal winter is investigated in 40 years (1979–2018) of monthly mean ERA‐Interim reanalyses. The method of Wallace et al. (1993),https://doi.org/10.1175/15200469(1993)050<1751:ROTESQ>2.0.CO;2is used to conduct a QBO phase angle sweep. QBO westerly (W) and easterly (E) composites are then segregated by the phase of ENSO. Two pathways are described by which the QBO mean meridional circulation (MMC) influences the northern winter hemisphere. The “stratospheric pathway” modulates stratospheric planetary wave absorption via the Holton‐Tan mechanism. The “tropospheric pathway” modulates the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. QBO MMC anomalies exhibit a checkerboard pattern in temperature and arched structures in zonal wind which extend into midlatitudes, and are stronger on the winter side. During QBO W, the polar vortex and STJs are enhanced. QBO signals in the polar vortex are amplified during La Niña. During El Niño and QBO W, the strongest STJs occur, and a warm pole/wave two pattern is found. During El Niño and QBO E, a trough is found over Eurasia and a ridge over the North Atlantic, in a wave one pattern. El Niño diminishes QBO anomalies in the tropical stratosphere and reduces the poleward extent and amplitude of the QBO MMC, thereby influencing the stratospheric pathway. Effects on the boreal winter hemisphere are attributed to the combined influence of the QBO and ENSO via both pathways.

     
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  2. null (Ed.)
  3. DYNAMO was a field experiment conducted over the near‐equatorial Indian Ocean during 2011 and 2012 for a better understanding of the mechanisms of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO). This study uses DYNAMO observations to study the organization of convection and maintenance of the MJO within the framework of synoptic‐scale weather systems. Lorenz box energetics is used over the limited DYNAMO domain to study the in‐scale energetics (i.e. the exchange of energy within a single scale). Formal scale energetics in the frequency domain is used to study the in‐scale as well as out‐of‐scale interactions (i.e. the exchange of energy among diverse scales) of the kinetic energy (KE) and available potential energy (APE) over limited DYNAMO domain and a zonal belt around the Earth extending 20° north and south of the Equator. The synoptic‐scale precipitation distributions, generation of eddy APE (from the covariance of convective heating and temperature) and its disposition to eddy KE (from the covariance of vertical velocity and temperature) confirm the importance of in‐scale energetics for the maintenance of the synoptic scale. The in‐scale energetics in the frequency domain suggest that conversion of APE to KE on the MJO scale is crucial for its maintenance. Out‐of‐scale energetics suggest that over both domains, MJO loses KE to the synoptic time‐scale (2–7 days), but a reverse situation is encountered in the vicinity of the summer subtropical jet. Overall, MJO is found weakly modulating synoptic scales via transferring eddy KE. These results also imply that out‐of‐scale KE interactions between MJO and synoptic scales are not crucial in understanding the maintenance of the MJO over the DYNAMO domain.

     
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