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    We present the first comprehensive halo occupation distribution (HOD) analysis of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) One-Percent Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) and Quasi Stellar Object (QSO) samples. We constrain the HOD of each sample and test possible HOD extensions by fitting the redshift-space galaxy 2-point correlation functions in 0.15 < r < 32 h−1 Mpc in a set of fiducial redshift bins. We use AbacusSummit cubic boxes at Planck 2018 cosmology as model templates and forward model galaxy clustering with the AbacusHOD package. We achieve good fits with a standard HOD model with velocity bias, and we find no evidence for galaxy assembly bias or satellite profile modulation at the current level of statistical uncertainty. For LRGs in 0.4 < z < 0.6, we infer a satellite fraction of $f_\mathrm{sat} = 11\pm 1~{y{\ \mathrm{per\,cent}}}$, a mean halo mass of $\log _{10}\overline{M}_h/M_\odot =13.40^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$, and a linear bias of $b_\mathrm{lin} = 1.93_{-0.04}^{+0.06}$. For LRGs in 0.6 < z < 0.8, we find $f_\mathrm{sat}=14\pm 1~{{\ \mathrm{per\,cent}}}$, $\log _{10}\overline{M}_h/M_\odot =13.24^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$, and $b_\mathrm{lin}=2.08_{-0.03}^{+0.03}$. For QSOs, we infer $f_\mathrm{sat}=3^{+8}_{-2}\mathrm{per\,cent}$, $\log _{10}\overline{M}_h/M_\odot = 12.65^{+0.09}_{-0.04}$, and $b_\mathrm{lin} = 2.63_{-0.26}^{+0.37}$ in redshift range 0.8 < z < 2.1. Using these fits, we generate a large suite of high fidelity galaxy mocks, forming the basis of systematic tests for DESI Y1 cosmological analyses. We also study the redshift-evolution of the DESI LRG sample from z = 0.4 up to z = 1.1, revealling significant and interesting trends in mean halo mass, linear bias, and satellite fraction.

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    Accurate quasar classifications and redshift measurements are increasingly important to precision cosmology experiments. Broad absorption line (BAL) features are present in 15–20 per cent of all quasars, and these features can introduce systematic redshift errors, and in extreme cases produce misclassifications. We quantitatively investigate the impact of BAL features on quasar classifications and redshift measurements with synthetic spectra that were designed to match observations by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Over the course of 5 yr, DESI aims to measure spectra for 40 million galaxies and quasars, including nearly three million quasars. Our synthetic quasar spectra match the signal-to-noise ratio and redshift distributions of the first year of DESI observations, and include the same synthetic quasar spectra both with and without BAL features. We demonstrate that masking the locations of the BAL features decreases the redshift errors by about 1 per cent and reduces the number of catastrophic redshift errors by about 80 per cent. We conclude that identifying and masking BAL troughs should be a standard part of the redshift determination step for DESI and other large-scale spectroscopic surveys of quasars.

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  3. Abstract

    We explore the galaxy-halo connection information that is available in low-redshift samples from the early data release of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). We model the halo occupation distribution (HOD) fromz= 0.1 to 0.3 using Survey Validation 3 (SV3; a.k.a., the One-Percent Survey) data of the DESI Bright Galaxy Survey. In addition to more commonly used metrics, we incorporate counts-in-cylinders (CiC) measurements, which drastically tighten HOD constraints. Our analysis is aided by the Python package,galtab, which enables the rapid, precise prediction of CiC for any HOD model available inhalotools. This methodology allows our Markov chains to converge with much fewer trial points, and enables even more drastic speedups due to its GPU portability. Our HOD fits constrain characteristic halo masses tightly and provide statistical evidence for assembly bias, especially at lower luminosity thresholds: the HOD of central galaxies inz∼ 0.15 samples with limiting absolute magnitudeMr< −20.0 andMr< −20.5 samples is positively correlated with halo concentration with a significance of 99.9% and 99.5%, respectively. Our models also favor positive central assembly bias for the brighterMr< −21.0 sample atz∼ 0.25 (94.8% significance), but there is no significant evidence for assembly bias with the same luminosity threshold atz∼ 0.15. We provide our constraints for each threshold sample’s characteristic halo masses, assembly bias, and other HOD parameters. These constraints are expected to be significantly tightened with future DESI data, which will span an area 100 times larger than that of SV3.

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    We measure the tidal alignment of the major axes of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Legacy Imaging Survey and use it to infer the artificial redshift-space distortion signature that will arise from an orientation-dependent, surface-brightness selection in the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Using photometric redshifts to downweight the shape–density correlations due to weak lensing, we measure the intrinsic tidal alignment of LRGs. Separately, we estimate the net polarization of LRG orientations from DESI’s fibre-magnitude target selection to be of order 10−2 along the line of sight. Using these measurements and a linear tidal model, we forecast a 0.5 per cent fractional decrease on the quadrupole of the two-point correlation function for projected separations of 40–80 h−1 Mpc. We also use a halo catalogue from the Abacussummit cosmological simulation suite to reproduce this false quadrupole.

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  5. Abstract The Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is an untargeted spectroscopic survey that aims to measure the expansion rate of the universe at z ∼ 2.4 to 1% precision for both H ( z ) and D A ( z ). HETDEX is in the process of mapping in excess of one million Ly α emitting (LAE) galaxies and a similar number of lower- z galaxies as a tracer of the large-scale structure. The success of the measurement is predicated on the post-observation separation of galaxies with Ly α emission from the lower- z interloping galaxies, primarily [O ii ], with low contamination and high recovery rates. The Emission Line eXplorer (ELiXer) is the principal classification tool for HETDEX, providing a tunable balance between contamination and completeness as dictated by science needs. By combining multiple selection criteria, ELiXer improves upon the 20 Å rest-frame equivalent width cut commonly used to distinguish LAEs from lower- z [O ii ] emitting galaxies. Despite a spectral resolving power, R ∼ 800, that cannot resolve the [O ii ] doublet, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish LAEs from foreground galaxies with 98.1% accuracy. We estimate a contamination rate of Ly α by [O ii ] of 1.2% and a Ly α recovery rate of 99.1% using the default ELiXer configuration. These rates meet the HETDEX science requirements. 
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    We present new spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations of the known sample of extreme coronal line-emitting galaxies (ECLEs) identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). With these new data, observations of the ECLE sample now span a period of two decades following their initial SDSS detections. We confirm the non-recurrence of the iron coronal line signatures in five of the seven objects, further supporting their identification as the transient light echoes of tidal disruption events (TDEs). Photometric observations of these objects in optical bands show little overall evolution. In contrast, mid-infrared (MIR) observations show ongoing long-term declines consistent with power-law decay. The remaining two objects had been classified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with unusually strong coronal lines rather than being TDE related, given the persistence of the coronal lines in earlier follow-up spectra. We confirm this classification, with our spectra continuing to show the presence of strong, unchanged coronal line features and AGN-like MIR colours and behaviour. We have constructed spectral templates of both subtypes of ECLE to aid in distinguishing the likely origin of newly discovered ECLEs. We highlight the need for higher cadence, and more rapid, follow-up observations of such objects to better constrain their properties and evolution. We also discuss the relationships between ECLEs, TDEs, and other identified transients having significant MIR variability.

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    We describe the target selection and characteristics of the DESI Peculiar Velocity Survey, the largest survey of peculiar velocities (PVs) using both the fundamental plane (FP) and the Tully–Fisher (TF) relationship planned to date. We detail how we identify suitable early-type galaxies (ETGs) for the FP and suitable late-type galaxies (LTGs) for the TF relation using the photometric data provided by the DESI Legacy Imaging Survey DR9. Subsequently, we provide targets for 373 533 ETGs and 118 637 LTGs within the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) 5-yr footprint. We validate these photometric selections using existing morphological classifications. Furthermore, we demonstrate using survey validation data that DESI is able to measure the spectroscopic properties to sufficient precision to obtain PVs for our targets. Based on realistic DESI fibre assignment simulations and spectroscopic success rates, we predict the final DESI PV Survey will obtain ∼133 000 FP-based and ∼53 000 TF-based PV measurements over an area of 14 000 deg2. We forecast the ability of using these data to measure the clustering of galaxy positions and PVs from the combined DESI PV and Bright Galaxy Surveys (BGS), which allows for cancellation of cosmic variance at low redshifts. With these forecasts, we anticipate a 4 per cent statistical measurement on the growth rate of structure at z < 0.15. This is over two times better than achievable with redshifts from the BGS alone. The combined DESI PV and BGS will enable the most precise tests to date of the time and scale dependence of large-scale structure growth at z < 0.15.

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  8. Abstract

    We present findings of the detection of Magnesium II (Mgii,λ= 2796, 2803 Å) absorbers from the early data release of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). DESI is projected to obtain spectroscopy of approximately 3 million quasars (QSOs), of which over 99% are anticipated to be at redshifts greater thanz> 0.3, such that DESI would be able to observe an associated or intervening Mgiiabsorber illuminated by the background QSO. We have developed an autonomous supplementary spectral pipeline that detects these systems through an initial line-fitting process and then confirms the line properties using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler. Based upon a visual inspection of the resulting systems, we estimate that this sample has a purity greater than 99%. We have also investigated the completeness of our sample in regard to both the signal-to-noise properties of the input spectra and the rest-frame equivalent width (W0) of the absorber systems. From a parent catalog containing 83,207 quasars, we detect a total of 23,921 Mgiiabsorption systems following a series of quality cuts. Extrapolating from this occurrence rate of 28.8% implies a catalog at the completion of the five-year DESI survey that will contain over eight hundred thousand Mgiiabsorbers. The cataloging of these systems will enable significant further research because they carry information regarding circumgalactic medium environments, the distribution of intervening galaxies, and the growth of metallicity across the redshift range 0.3 ≤z< 2.5.

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  9. Abstract

    We utilize ∼17,000 bright luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the novel Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Survey Validation spectroscopic sample, leveraging its deep (∼2.5 hr galaxy−1exposure time) spectra to characterize the contribution of recently quenched galaxies to the massive galaxy population at 0.4 <z< 1.3. We useProspectorto infer nonparametric star formation histories and identify a significant population of recently quenched galaxies that have joined the quiescent population within the past ∼1 Gyr. The highest-redshift subset (277 atz> 1) of our sample of recently quenched galaxies represents the largest spectroscopic sample of post-starburst galaxies at that epoch. At 0.4 <z< 0.8, we measure the number density of quiescent LRGs, finding that recently quenched galaxies constitute a growing fraction of the massive galaxy population with increasing look-back time. Finally, we quantify the importance of this population among massive (log(M/M)> 11.2) LRGs by measuring the fraction of stellar mass each galaxy formed in the gigayear before observation,f1 Gyr. Although galaxies withf1 Gyr> 0.1 are rare atz∼ 0.4 (≲0.5% of the population), byz∼ 0.8, they constitute ∼3% of massive galaxies. Relaxing this threshold, we find that galaxies withf1 Gyr> 5% constitute ∼10% of the massive galaxy population atz∼ 0.8. We also identify a small but significant sample of galaxies atz= 1.1–1.3 that formed withf1 Gyr> 50%, implying that they may be analogs to high-redshift quiescent galaxies that formed on similar timescales. Future analysis of this unprecedented sample promises to illuminate the physical mechanisms that drive the quenching of massive galaxies after cosmic noon.

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    Analysis of large galaxy surveys requires confidence in the robustness of numerical simulation methods. The simulations are used to construct mock galaxy catalogues to validate data analysis pipelines and identify potential systematics. We compare three N-body simulation codes, abacus, gadget-2, and swift, to investigate the regimes in which their results agree. We run N-body simulations at three different mass resolutions, 6.25 × 108, 2.11 × 109, and 5.00 × 109 h−1 M⊙, matching phases to reduce the noise within the comparisons. We find systematic errors in the halo clustering between different codes are smaller than the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) statistical error for $s\ \gt\ 20\ h^{-1}$ Mpc in the correlation function in redshift space. Through the resolution comparison we find that simulations run with a mass resolution of 2.1 × 109 h−1 M⊙ are sufficiently converged for systematic effects in the halo clustering to be smaller than the DESI statistical error at scales larger than $20\ h^{-1}$ Mpc. These findings show that the simulations are robust for extracting cosmological information from large scales which is the key goal of the DESI survey. Comparing matter power spectra, we find the codes agree to within 1 per cent for k ≤ 10 h Mpc−1. We also run a comparison of three initial condition generation codes and find good agreement. In addition, we include a quasi-N-body code, FastPM, since we plan use it for certain DESI analyses. The impact of the halo definition and galaxy–halo relation will be presented in a follow-up study.

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