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  1. Nowadays, the behavior tree is gaining popularity as a representation for robot tasks due to its modularity and reusability. Designing behavior-tree tasks manually is a time-consuming work for robot end- users, thus suggests a need for automatic behavior-tree task generation. Prior behavior-tree generation approaches focus on fixed primitive tasks and lack generalizability to new task domains. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel behavior-tree task generation approach with state-of-the-art large language models. We present a Phase-Step prompt design that enables hierarchical-structured robot task generation. We further integrate with behavior-tree-embedding-based search to set up the appropriate prompt. In such way, we enable automatic and cross-domain behavior-tree task generation. Our task generation approach does not require a set of pre-defined primitive tasks. End-user only needs to describe an abstract desired task and our approach can swiftly generate the corresponding behavior tree. Case studies are provided to demonstrate our approach. 
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  2. Martin, A ; Hinkelmann, K ; Fill, H ; Gerber, A ; Lenat, D. ; Stolle, R. ; van Harmelen, F (Ed.)
    Nowadays, the behavior tree is gaining popularity as a representation for robot tasks due to its modularity and reusability. Designing behavior-tree tasks manually is time-consuming for robot end-users, thus there is a need for investigating automatic behavior-tree-based task generation. Prior behavior-tree- based task generation approaches focus on fixed primitive tasks and lack generalizability to new task domains. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel behavior-tree-based task generation approach that utilizes state-of-the-art large language models. We propose a Phase-Step prompt design that enables a hierarchical-structured robot task generation and further integrate it with behavior-tree-embedding- based search to set up the appropriate prompt. In this way, we enable an automatic and cross-domain behavior-tree task generation. Our behavior-tree-based task generation approach does not require a set of pre-defined primitive tasks. End-users only need to describe an abstract desired task and our proposed approach can swiftly generate the corresponding behavior tree. A full-process case study is provided to demonstrate our proposed approach. An ablation study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of our Phase-Step prompts. Assessment on Phase-Step prompts and the limitation of large language models are presented and discussed. 
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  3. Nowadays, the behavior tree is gaining popularity as a representation for robot tasks due to its modularity and reusability. Designing behavior-tree tasks manually is time-consuming for robot end-users, thus there is a need for investigating automatic behavior-tree-based task generation. Prior behavior-tree- based task generation approaches focus on fixed primitive tasks and lack generalizability to new task domains. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel behavior-tree-based task generation approach that utilizes state-of-the-art large language models. We propose a Phase-Step prompt design that enables a hierarchical-structured robot task generation and further integrate it with behavior-tree-embedding- based search to set up the appropriate prompt. In this way, we enable an automatic and cross-domain behavior-tree task generation. Our behavior-tree-based task generation approach does not require a set of pre-defined primitive tasks. End-users only need to describe an abstract desired task and our proposed approach can swiftly generate the corresponding behavior tree. A full-process case study is provided to demonstrate our proposed approach. An ablation study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of our Phase-Step prompts. Assessment on Phase-Step prompts and the limitation of large language models are presented and discussed. 
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  4. Bebis, G. et (Ed.)
    In this paper, we extend the traditional few-shot learning (FSL) problem to the situation when the source-domain data is not accessible but only high-level information in the form of class prototypes is available. This limited information setup for the FSL problem deserves much attention due to its implication of privacy-preserving inaccessibility to the source-domain data but it has rarely been addressed before. Because of limited training data, we propose a non-parametric approach to this FSL problem by assuming that all the class prototypes are structurally arranged on a manifold. Accordingly, we estimate the novel-class prototype locations by projecting the few-shot samples onto the average of the subspaces on which the surrounding classes lie. During classification, we again exploit the structural arrangement of the categories by inducing a Markov chain on the graph constructed with the class prototypes. This manifold distance obtained using the Markov chain is expected to produce better results compared to a traditional nearest- neighbor-based Euclidean distance. To evaluate our proposed framework, we have tested it on two image datasets – the large-scale ImageNet and the small-scale but fine-grained CUB-200. We have also studied parameter sensitivity to better understand our framework. 
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  5. In this paper, we address the Online Unsupervised Domain Adapta- tion (OUDA) problem, where the target data are unlabelled and ar- riving sequentially. The traditional methods on the OUDA problem mainly focus on transforming each arriving target data to the source domain, and they do not sufficiently consider the temporal coherency and accumulative statistics among the arriving target data. We pro- pose a multi-step framework for the OUDA problem, which insti- tutes a novel method to compute the mean-target subspace inspired by the geometrical interpretation on the Euclidean space. This mean- target subspace contains accumulative temporal information among the arrived target data. Moreover, the transformation matrix com- puted from the mean-target subspace is applied to the next target data as a preprocessing step, aligning the target data closer to the source domain. Experiments on four datasets demonstrated the con- tribution of each step in our proposed multi-step OUDA framework and its performance over previous approaches. 
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  6. Domain adaptation (DA) addresses the real-world image classification problem of discrepancy between training (source) and testing (target) data distributions. We propose an unsupervised DA method that considers the presence of only unlabelled data in the target do- main. Our approach centers on finding matches between samples of the source and target domains. The matches are obtained by treating the source and target domains as hyper-graphs and carrying out a class-regularized hyper-graph matching using first-, second- and third-order similarities between the graphs. We have also developed a computationally efficient algorithm by initially selecting a subset of the samples to construct a graph and then developing a customized optimization routine for graph-matching based on Conditional Gradient and Alternating Direction Multiplier Method. This allows the proposed method to be used widely. We also performed a set of experiments on standard object recognition datasets to validate the effectiveness of our framework over previous approaches. 
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  7. The goal of domain adaptation is to train a high-performance predictive model on the target domain data by using knowledge from the source domain data, which has different but related data distribution. In this paper, we consider unsupervised domain adaptation where we have labelled source domain data but unlabelled target domain data. Our solution to unsupervised domain adaptation is to learn a domain- invariant representation that is also category discriminative. Domain- invariant representations are realized by minimizing the domain discrepancy. To minimize the domain discrepancy, we propose a novel graph- matching metric between the source and target domain representations. Minimizing this metric allows the source and target representations to be in support of each other. We further exploit confident unlabelled target domain samples and their pseudo-labels to refine our proposed model. We expect the refining step to improve the performance further. This is validated by performing experiments on standard image classification adaptation datasets. Results showed our proposed approach out-perform previous domain-invariant representation learning approaches. 
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  8. The assumption that training and testing samples are generated from the same distribution does not always hold for real-world machine-learning applications. The procedure of tackling this discrepancy between the training (source) and testing (target) domains is known as domain adaptation. We propose an unsupervised version of domain adaptation that considers the presence of only unlabelled data in the target domain. Our approach centres on finding correspondences between samples of each domain. The correspondences are obtained by treating the source and target samples as graphs and using a convex criterion to match them. The criteria used are first-order and second-order similarities between the graphs as well as a class-based regularization. We have also developed a computationally efficient routine for the convex optimization, thus allowing the proposed method to be used widely. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, computer simulations were conducted on synthetic, image classification and sentiment classification datasets. Results validated that the proposed local sample-to- sample matching method out-performs traditional moment-matching methods and is competitive with respect to current local domain-adaptation methods. 
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