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  1. Abstract Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud and mostly irradiated by the massive star cluster R136, 30 Doradus is an ideal target to test the leading theory of grain alignment and rotational disruption by RAdiative Torques (RATs). Here, we use publicly available polarized thermal dust emission observations of 30 Doradus at 89, 154, and 214 μ m using SOFIA/HAWC+. We analyze the variation of the dust polarization degree ( p ) with the total emission intensity ( I ), the dust temperature ( T d ), and the gas column density ( N H ) constructed from Herschel data. The 30 Doradus complex is divided into two main regions relative to R136, namely North and South. In the North, we find that the polarization degree first decreases and then increases before decreasing again when the dust temperature increases toward the irradiating cluster R136. The first depolarization likely arises from the decrease in grain alignment efficiency toward the dense medium due to the attenuation of the interstellar radiation field and the increase in the gas density. The second trend (the increase of p with T d ) is consistent with the RAT alignment theory. The final trend (the decrease of pmore »with T d ) is consistent with the RAT alignment theory only when the grain rotational disruption by RATs is taken into account. In the South, we find that the polarization degree is nearly independent of the dust temperature, while the grain alignment efficiency is higher around the peak of the gas column density and decreases toward the radiation source. The latter feature is also consistent with the prediction of rotational disruption by RATs.« less
  2. Abstract Using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to measure 21 cm absorption spectra toward continuum background sources, we study the cool phase of the neutral atomic gas in the far outer disk, and in the inner Galaxy near the end of the Galactic bar at longitude 340°. In the inner Galaxy, the cool atomic gas has a smaller scale height than in the solar neighborhood, similar to the molecular gas and the super-thin stellar population in the bar. In the outer Galaxy, the cool atomic gas is mixed with the warm, neutral medium, with the cool fraction staying roughly constant with the Galactic radius. The ratio of the emission brightness temperature to the absorption, i.e., 1 − e − τ , is roughly constant for velocities corresponding to Galactic radius greater than about twice the solar circle radius. The ratio has a value of about 300 K, but this does not correspond to a physical temperature in the gas. If the gas causing the absorption has kinetic temperature of about 100 K, as in the solar neighborhood, then the value 300 K indicates that the fraction of the gas mass in this phase is one-third of the total Hmore »i mass.« less
  3. Abstract We present the first unbiased survey of neutral hydrogen absorption in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The survey utilises pilot neutral hydrogen observations with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope as part of the Galactic Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder neutral hydrogen project whose dataset has been processed with the Galactic Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder-HI absorption pipeline, also described here. This dataset provides absorption spectra towards 229 continuum sources, a 275% increase in the number of continuum sources previously published in the Small Magellanic Cloud region, as well as an improvement in the quality of absorption spectra over previous surveys of the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our unbiased view, combined with the closely matched beam size between emission and absorption, reveals a lower cold gas faction (11%) than the 2019 ATCA survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud and is more representative of the Small Magellanic Cloud as a whole. We also find that the optical depth varies greatly between the Small Magellanic Cloud’s bar and wing regions. In the bar we find that the optical depth is generally low (correction factor to the optically thin column density assumption of $\mathcal{R}_{\mathrm{HI}} \sim 1.04$ ) but increases linearly with column density.more »In the wing however, there is a wide scatter in optical depth despite a tighter range of column densities.« less