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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
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  5. CAP is an ionized gas generated under atmospheric pressure conditions. Due to its reactive chemical components and near-room temperature nature, CAP has promising applications in diverse branches of medicine, including microorganism sterilization, biofilm inactivation, wound healing, and cancer therapy. Currently, hundreds of in vitro demonstrations of CAP-based cancer treatments have been reported. However, preclinical studies, particularly in vivo studies, are pivotal to achieving a final clinical application. Here, we comprehensively introduced the research status of the preclinical usage of CAP in cancer treatment, by primarily focusing on the in vivo studies over the past decade. We summarized the primary research strategies in preclinical and clinical studies, including transdermal CAP treatment, post-surgical CAP treatment, CAP-activated solutions treatment, and sensitization treatment to drugs. Finally, the underlying mechanism was discussed based on the latest understanding.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  6. Tang, Qiang (Ed.)
    As an environmentally friendly technology, microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is widely used to improve the engineering properties of soil. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of rainfall-induced erosion on the stability of sandy slopes which were treated by MICP technology. The observation of the erosion pattern of low concentration (0.25 M Ca) and high concentration (0.5 M Ca) of MICP-treated slopes, the mechanical behaviors of MICP-treated and cement-treated samples, and the effects of rainfall-induced erosion on the roughness of 0.5 M Ca MICP-treated and 10% cement-treated slope were studied through visual observation, unconfined compressive tests, and roughness tests. For the 0.25 M Ca MICP-treated sample, surface erosion was found to occur soon after the start of the rainfall erosion test, while for the 0.5 M Ca MICP-treated sample, the slope surface remained intact after exposing to the rainfall for 24 hours. Through unconfined compressive tests, it can be concluded that the 0.5 M Ca MICP treatment achieved a high strength, which was similar to 10% cement-treated sand. The roughness test results showed that the surface of 0.5 M Ca MICP-treated slope looked smoother than the uneroded surface after 24-h rainfall-induced erosion. On the contrary, the surface of the 10% cement-treated slope becamemore »rougher after 24-h rainfall-induced erosion. These results indicated that the MICP-treated sandy slope had lower resistance against rainfall-induced erosion compared to the cement-treated sandy slope.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
  7. Abstract Estimates of the permafrost-climate feedback vary in magnitude and sign, partly because permafrost carbon stability in warmer-than-present conditions is not well constrained. Here we use a Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine reconstruction of mean annual air temperature (MAAT) from the Tibetan Plateau, the largest alpine permafrost region on the Earth, to constrain past and future changes in permafrost carbon storage. Clumped isotope-temperatures (Δ 47 -T) indicate warmer MAAT (~1.2 °C) prior to 2.7 Ma, and support a permafrost-free environment on the northern Tibetan Plateau in a warmer-than-present climate. Δ 47 -T indicate ~8.1 °C cooling from 2.7 Ma, coincident with Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification. Combined with climate models and global permafrost distribution, these results indicate, under conditions similar to mid-Pliocene Warm period (3.3–3.0 Ma), ~60% of alpine permafrost containing ~85 petagrams of carbon may be vulnerable to thawing compared to ~20% of circumarctic permafrost. This estimate highlights ~25% of permafrost carbon and the permafrost-climate feedback could originate in alpine areas.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  8. The dynamic mechanical properties of metallic glasses (MGs) are crucial to capturing the deformation signatures as well as for structural and functional applications. In this work, we investigate the influence of nanoscale structural heterogeneity of MGs on dynamic plasticity, focusing on the variation in strain rate sensitivity and the transition of deformation mechanisms, using a combined experimental and simulation approach. The Cu 50 Zr 50 thin-film MGs with different nanoscale heterogeneities are synthesized using magnetron sputtering and further characterized using dynamic force microscopy and nanoindentation. All the films exhibit a strain rate hardening effect, but a transition in strain rate sensitivity as the indentation rate increases has been found in the MG with a higher heterogeneity. To understand the underlying mechanisms, mesoscale shear transformation zone dynamics simulations are performed on model Cu 50 Zr 50 MGs. The simulation results are able to capture the experimental trend. Notably, the transition in strain rate sensitivity for a heterogenous MG stems from a change in deformation mechanisms: from structure-dictated strain localization at a lower strain rate to stress-dictated strain percolation into a shear band at a higher strain rate. The observed strain rate sensitivity and the corresponding mechanisms are summarized in a deformationmore »mechanism map where nanoscale structural heterogeneity and strain rate are varied. We envision our study not only providing insights into the structure and property relationship of MGs on the nanoscale but also will facilitate the design of heterogeneous MGs for dynamic applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 15, 2023
  9. The Princess Elizabeth Land sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is a significant reservoir of grounded ice and is adjacent to regions that experienced great change during Quaternary glacial cycles and Pliocene warm episodes. The existence of an extensive subglacial water system in Princess Elizabeth Land (to date only inferred from satellite imagery) bears the potential to significantly impact the thermal and kinematic conditions of the overlying ice sheet. We confirm the existence of a major subglacial lake, herein referred to as Lake Snow Eagle (LSE), for the first time using recently acquired aerogeophysical data. We systematically investigated LSE’s geological characteristics and bathymetry from two-dimensional geophysical inversion models. The inversion results suggest that LSE is located along a compressional geologic boundary, which provides reference for future characterization of the geologic and tectonic context of this region. We estimate LSE to be ~42 km in length and 370 km2 in area, making it one of the largest subglacial lakes in Antarctica. Additionally, the airborne ice-penetrating radar observations and geophysical inversions reveal a layer of unconsolidated water-saturated sediment around and at the bottom of LSE, which—given the ultralow rates of sedimentation expected in such environments—may archive valuable records of paleoenvironmental changesmore »and the early history of East Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution in Princess Elizabeth Land.« less