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  1. The remarkable progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has ushered in a new era characterized by models with billions of parameters, enabling extraordinary capabilities across diverse domains. However, these achievements come at a significant cost in terms of memory and energy consumption. The growing demand for computational resources raises grand challenges for the sustainable development of energy-efficient AI systems. This paper delves into the paradigm of memory-based computing as a promising avenue to address these challenges. By capitalizing on the inherent characteristics of memory and its efficient utilization, memory-based computing offers a novel approach to enhance AI performance while reducing the associated energy costs. Our paper systematically analyzes the multifaceted aspects of this paradigm, highlighting its potential benefits and outlining the challenges it poses. Through an exploration of various methodologies, architectures, and algorithms, we elucidate the intricate interplay between memory utilization, computational efficiency, and AI model complexity. Furthermore, we review the evolving area of hardware and software solutions for memory-based computing, underscoring their implications for achieving energy-efficient AI systems. As AI continues its rapid evolution, identifying the key challenges and insights presented in this paper serve as a foundational guide for researchers striving to navigate the complex field of memory-based computing and its pivotal role in shaping the future of energy-efficient AI. 
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  2. Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown impressive performance and have become a unified backbone for multiple vision tasks. However, both the attention mechanism and multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) in ViTs are not sufficiently efficient due to dense multiplications, leading to costly training and inference. To this end, we propose to reparameterize pre-trained ViTs with a mixture of multiplication primitives, e.g., bitwise shifts and additions, towards a new type of multiplication-reduced model, dubbed ShiftAddViT, which aims to achieve end-to-end inference speedups on GPUs without requiring training from scratch. Specifically, all MatMuls among queries, keys, and values are reparameterized using additive kernels, after mapping queries and keys to binary codes in Hamming space. The remaining MLPs or linear layers are then reparameterized with shift kernels. We utilize TVM to implement and optimize those customized kernels for practical hardware deployment on GPUs. We find that such a reparameterization on (quadratic or linear) attention maintains model accuracy, while inevitably leading to accuracy drops when being applied to MLPs. To marry the best of both worlds, we further propose a new mixture of experts (MoE) framework to reparameterize MLPs by taking multiplication or its primitives as experts, e.g., multiplication and shift, and designing a new latency-aware load-balancing loss. Such a loss helps to train a generic router for assigning a dynamic amount of input tokens to different experts according to their latency. In principle, the faster the experts run, the more input tokens they are assigned. Extensive experiments on various 2D/3D Transformer-based vision tasks consistently validate the effectiveness of our proposed ShiftAddViT, achieving up to 5.18x latency reductions on GPUs and 42.9% energy savings, while maintaining a comparable accuracy as original or efficient ViTs. Codes and models are available at https://github.com/GATECH-EIC/ShiftAddViT. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 21, 2024
  3. Vision Transformer (ViT) has demonstrated promising performance in various computer vision tasks, and recently attracted a lot of research attention. Many recent works have focused on proposing new architectures to improve ViT and deploying it into real-world applications. However, little effort has been made to analyze and understand ViT’s architecture design space and its implication of hardware-cost on different devices. In this work, by simply scaling ViT’s depth, width, input size, and other basic configurations, we show that a scaled vanilla ViT model without bells and whistles can achieve comparable or superior accuracy-efficiency trade-off than most of the latest ViT variants. Specifically, compared to DeiT-Tiny, our scaled model achieves a\(\uparrow 1.9\% \)higher ImageNet top-1 accuracy under the same FLOPs and a\(\uparrow 3.7\% \)better ImageNet top-1 accuracy under the same latency on an NVIDIA Edge GPU TX2. Motivated by this, we further investigate the extracted scaling strategies from the following two aspects: (1) “can these scaling strategies be transferred across different real hardware devices?”; and (2) “can these scaling strategies be transferred to different ViT variants and tasks?”. For (1), our exploration, based on various devices with different resource budgets, indicates that the transferability effectiveness depends on the underlying device together with its corresponding deployment tool; for (2), we validate the effective transferability of the aforementioned scaling strategies obtained from a vanilla ViT model on top of an image classification task to the PiT model, a strong ViT variant targeting efficiency, as well as object detection and video classification tasks. In particular, when transferred to PiT, our scaling strategies lead to a boosted ImageNet top-1 accuracy of from\(74.6\% \)to\(76.7\% \)(\(\uparrow 2.1\% \)) under the same 0.7G FLOPs; and when transferred to the COCO object detection task, the average precision is boosted by\(\uparrow 0.7\% \)under a similar throughput on a V100 GPU.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 21, 2024
  4. Transfer learning leverages feature representations of deep neural networks (DNNs) pretrained on source tasks with rich data to empower effective finetuning on downstream tasks. However, the pre-trained models are often prohibitively large for delivering generalizable representations, which limits their deployment on edge devices with constrained resources. To close this gap, we propose a new transfer learning pipeline, which leverages our finding that robust tickets can transfer better, i.e., subnetworks drawn with properly induced adversarial robustness can win better transferability over vanilla lottery ticket subnetworks. Extensive experiments and ablation studies validate that our proposed transfer learning pipeline can achieve enhanced accuracy-sparsity trade-offs across both diverse downstream tasks and sparsity patterns, further enriching the lottery ticket hypothesis. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 9, 2024
  5. Social ambiance describes the context in which social interactions happen, and can be measured using speech audio by counting the number of concurrent speakers. This measurement has enabled various mental health tracking and human-centric IoT applications. While on-device Socal Ambiance Measure (SAM) is highly desirable to ensure user privacy and thus facilitate wide adoption of the aforementioned applications, the required computational complexity of state-of-the-art deep neural networks (DNNs) powered SAM solutions stands at odds with the often constrained resources on mobile devices. Furthermore, only limited labeled data is available or practical when it comes to SAM under clinical settings due to various privacy constraints and the required human effort, further challenging the achievable accuracy of on-device SAM solutions. To this end, we propose a dedicated neural architecture search framework for Energy-efficient and Real-time SAM (ERSAM). Specifically, our ERSAM framework can automatically search for DNNs that push forward the achievable accuracy vs. hardware efficiency frontier of mobile SAM solutions. For example, ERSAM-delivered DNNs only consume 40 mW • 12 h energy and 0.05 seconds processing latency for a 5 seconds audio segment on a Pixel 3 phone, while only achieving an error rate of 14.3% on a social ambiance dataset generated by LibriSpeech. We can expect that our ERSAM framework can pave the way for ubiquitous on-device SAM solutions which are in growing demand. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 4, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 17, 2024