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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. This paper revisits building machine learning algorithms that involve interactions between entities, such as those between financial assets in an actively managed portfolio, or interactions between users in a social network. Our goal is to forecast the future evolution of ensembles of multivariate time series in such applications (e.g., the future return of a financial asset or the future popularity of a Twitter account). Designing ML algorithms for such systems requires addressing the challenges of high-dimensional interactions and non-linearity. Existing approaches usually adopt an ad-hoc approach to integrating high-dimensional techniques into non-linear models and re- cent studies have shown these approaches have questionable efficacy in time-evolving interacting systems. To this end, we propose a novel framework, which we dub as the additive influence model. Under our modeling assump- tion, we show that it is possible to decouple the learning of high-dimensional interactions from the learning of non-linear feature interactions. To learn the high-dimensional interac- tions, we leverage kernel-based techniques, with provable guarantees, to embed the entities in a low-dimensional latent space. To learn the non-linear feature-response interactions, we generalize prominent machine learning techniques, includ- ing designing a new statistically sound non-parametric method and an ensemble learning algorithm optimized for vector re- gressions. Extensive experiments on two common applica- tions demonstrate that our new algorithms deliver significantly stronger forecasting power compared to standard and recently proposed methods. 
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  3. Since Rendle and Krichene argued that commonly used sampling-based evaluation metrics are “inconsistent” with respect to the global metrics (even in expectation), there have been a few studies on the sampling-based recommender system evaluation. Existing methods try either mapping the sampling-based metrics to their global counterparts or more generally, learning the empirical rank distribution to estimate the top-K metrics. However, despite existing efforts, there is still a lack of rigorous theoretical understanding of the proposed metric estimators, and the basic item sampling also suffers from the “blind spot” issue, i.e., estimation accuracy to recover the top-K metrics when K is small can still be rather substantial. In this paper, we provide an in-depth investigation into these problems and make two innovative contributions. First, we propose a new item-sampling estimator that explicitly optimizes the error with respect to the ground truth, and theoretically highlights its subtle difference against prior work. Second, we propose a new adaptive sampling method that aims to deal with the “blind spot” problem and also demonstrate the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm can be generalized for such a setting. Our experimental results confirm our statistical analysis and the superiority of the proposed works. This study helps lay the theoretical foundation for adopting item sampling metrics for recommendation evaluation and provides strong evidence for making item sampling a powerful and reliable tool for recommendation evaluation. 
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  4. Lightweight neural networks refer to deep networks with small numbers of parameters, which can be deployed in resource-limited hardware such as embedded systems. To learn such lightweight networks effectively and efficiently, in this paper we propose a novel convolutional layer, namely Channel-Split Recurrent Convolution (CSR-Conv), where we split the output channels to generate data sequences with length T as the input to the recurrent layers with shared weights. As a consequence, we can construct lightweight convolutional networks by simply replacing (some) linear convolutional layers with CSR-Conv layers. We prove that under mild conditions the model size decreases with the rate of O( 1 ). Empirically we demonstrate the state-of-the-art T2 performance using VGG-16, ResNet-50, ResNet-56, ResNet- 110, DenseNet-40, MobileNet, and EfficientNet as backbone networks on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet. Codes can be found on Conv. 
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  5. Automatic food type recognition is an essential task of dietary monitoring. It helps medical professionals recognize a user’s food contents, estimate the amount of energy intake, and design a personalized intervention model to prevent many chronic diseases, such as obesity and heart disease. Various wearable and mobile devices are utilized as platforms for food type recognition. However, none of them has been widely used in our daily lives and, at the same time, socially acceptable enough for continuous wear. In this paper, we propose a food type recognition method that takes advantage of Airpods Pro, a pair of widely used wireless in-ear headphones designed by Apple, to recognize 20 different types of food. As far as we know, we are the first to use this socially acceptable commercial product to recognize food types. Audio and motion sensor data are collected from Airpods Pro. Then 135 representative features are extracted and selected to construct the recognition model using the lightGBM algorithm. A real-world data collection is conducted to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the proposed method for seven human subjects. The results show that the average f1-score reaches 94.4% for the ten-fold cross- validation test and 96.0% for the self-evaluation test. 
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  6. Existing topic modeling and text segmentation methodologies generally require large datasets for training, limiting their capabilities when only small collections of text are available. In this work, we reexamine the inter-related problems of “topic identification” and “text segmentation” for sparse document learning, when there is a single new text of interest. In developing a methodology to handle single documents, we face two major challenges. First is sparse information : with access to only one document, we cannot train traditional topic models or deep learning algorithms. Second is significant noise : a considerable portion of words in any single document will produce only noise and not help discern topics or segments. To tackle these issues, we design an unsupervised, computationally efficient methodology called Biclustering Approach to Topic modeling and Segmentation (BATS). BATS leverages three key ideas to simultaneously identify topics and segment text: (i) a new mechanism that uses word order information to reduce sample complexity, (ii) a statistically sound graph-based biclustering technique that identifies latent structures of words and sentences, and (iii) a collection of effective heuristics that remove noise words and award important words to further improve performance. Experiments on six datasets show that our approach outperforms several state-of-the-art baselines when considering topic coherence, topic diversity, segmentation, and runtime comparison metrics. 
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