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  1. Bogomolov, S. ; Parker, D. (Ed.)
    Continuous deep learning models, referred to as Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (Neural ODEs), have received considerable attention over the last several years. Despite their burgeoning impact, there is a lack of formal analysis techniques for these systems. In this paper, we consider a general class of neural ODEs with varying architectures and layers, and introduce a novel reachability framework that allows for the formal analysis of their behavior. The methods developed for the reachability analysis of neural ODEs are implemented in a new tool called NNVODE. Specifically, our work extends an existing neural network verification tool to support neural ODEs. We demonstrate the capabilities and efficacy of our methods through the analysis of a set of benchmarks that include neural ODEs used for classification, and in control and dynamical systems, including an evaluation of the efficacy and capabilities of our approach with respect to existing software tools within the continuous-time systems reachability literature, when it is possible to do so. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    This paper introduces robustness verification for semantic segmentation neural networks (in short, semantic segmentation networks [SSNs]), building on and extending recent approaches for robustness verification of image classification neural networks. Despite recent progress in developing verification methods for specifications such as local adversarial robustness in deep neural networks (DNNs) in terms of scalability, precision, and applicability to different network architectures, layers, and activation functions, robustness verification of semantic segmentation has not yet been considered. We address this limitation by developing and applying new robustness analysis methods for several segmentation neural network architectures, specifically by addressing reachability analysis of up-sampling layers, such as transposed convolution and dilated convolution. We consider several definitions of robustness for segmentation, such as the percentage of pixels in the output that can be proven robust under different adversarial perturbations, and a robust variant of intersection-over-union (IoU), the typical performance evaluation measure for segmentation tasks. Our approach is based on a new relaxed reachability method, allowing users to select the percentage of a number of linear programming problems (LPs) to solve when constructing the reachable set, through a relaxation factor percentage. The approach is implemented within NNV, then applied and evaluated on segmentation datasets, such as a multi-digit variant of MNIST known as M2NIST. Thorough experiments show that by using transposed convolution for up-sampling and average-pooling for down-sampling, combined with minimizing the number of ReLU layers in the SSNs, we can obtain SSNs with not only high accuracy (IoU), but also that are more robust to adversarial attacks and amenable to verification. Additionally, using our new relaxed reachability method, we can significantly reduce the verification time for neural networks whose ReLU layers dominate the total analysis time, even in classification tasks. 
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  3. Abstract As the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers, soon to be joined by the KAGRA interferometer, increase their sensitivity, they detect an ever-larger number of gravitational waves with a significant presence of higher multipoles (HMs) in addition to the dominant (2, 2) multipole. These HMs can be detected with different approaches, such as the minimally-modeled burst search methods, and here we discuss one such approach based on the coherent WaveBurst (cWB) pipeline. During the inspiral phase the HMs produce chirps whose instantaneous frequency is a multiple of the dominant (2, 2) multipole, and here we describe how cWB can be used to detect these spectral features. The search is performed within suitable regions of the time-frequency representation; their shape is determined by optimizing the receiver operating characteristics. This novel method has already been used in the GW190814 discovery paper (Abbott et al 2020 Astrophys. J. Lett. 896 L44) and is very fast and flexible. Here we describe in full detail the procedure used to detect the (3, 3) multipole in GW190814 as well as searches for other HMs during the inspiral phase, and apply it to another event that displays HMs, GW190412, replicating the results obtained with different methods. The procedure described here can be used for the fast analysis of HMs and to support the findings obtained with the model-based Bayesian parameter estimates. 
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  4. Abstract The coherent WaveBurst (cWB) pipeline implements a minimally-modelled search to find a coherent response in the network of gravitational wave detectors of the LIGO-Virgo Col-laboration in the time-frequency domain. In this manuscript, we provide a timely introduction to an extension of the cWB analysis to detect spectral features beyond the main quadrupolar emission of gravitational waves during the inspiral phase of compact binary coalescences; more detailed discussion will be provided in a forthcoming paper [1]. The search is performed by defining specific regions in the time-frequency map to extract the energy of harmonics of main quadrupole mode in the inspiral phase. This method has already been used in the GW190814 discovery paper (Astrophys. J. Lett. 896 L44). Here we show the procedure to detect the (3, 3) multipole in GW190814 within the cWB framework. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2025
  6. Abstract

    We present Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM) and Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT) searches for gamma-ray/X-ray counterparts to gravitational-wave (GW) candidate events identified during the third observing run of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. Using Fermi-GBM onboard triggers and subthreshold gamma-ray burst (GRB) candidates found in the Fermi-GBM ground analyses, the Targeted Search and the Untargeted Search, we investigate whether there are any coincident GRBs associated with the GWs. We also search the Swift-BAT rate data around the GW times to determine whether a GRB counterpart is present. No counterparts are found. Using both the Fermi-GBM Targeted Search and the Swift-BAT search, we calculate flux upper limits and present joint upper limits on the gamma-ray luminosity of each GW. Given these limits, we constrain theoretical models for the emission of gamma rays from binary black hole mergers.

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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024