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  1. Abstract

    A charge density wave (CDW) represents an exotic state in which electrons are arranged in a long‐range ordered pattern in low‐dimensional materials. Although the understanding of the fundamental character of CDW is enriched after extensive studies, its practical application remains limited. Here, an unprecedented demonstration of a tunable charge‐spin interconversion (CSI) in graphene/1T‐TaS2van der Waals heterostructures is shown by manipulating the distinct CDW phases in 1T‐TaS2. Whereas CSI from spins polarized in all three directions is observed in the heterostructure when the CDW phase does not show commensurability, the output of one of the components disappears, and the other two are enhanced when the CDW phase becomes commensurate. The experimental observation is supported by first‐principles calculations, which evidence that chiral CDW multidomains in the heterostructure are at the origin of the switching of CSI. The results uncover a new approach for on‐demand CSI in low‐dimensional systems, paving the way for advanced spin‐orbitronic devices.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Relativistic Weyl fermion quasiparticles in Weyl semimetal bring the electron’s chirality degree of freedom into the electrical transport and give rise to exotic phenomena. A topological phase transition from a topological trivial phase to a topological non-trivial phase offers a route to control electronic devices through its topological properties. Here, we report the Weyl semimetal phase in hydrothermally grown two-dimensional Tellurium (2D Te) induced by high hydrostatic pressure (up to 2.47 GPa). The unique chiral crystal structure gives rise to chiral fermions with different topological chiral charges ($${{C}}=-{{1}},+{{1}},{{and}}-{{2}}$$C=1,+1,and2). The highly tunable chemical potential in 2D Te provides comprehensive information for understanding the pressure-dependent electron band structure. The pressure-induced insulator-to-metal transition, two-carrier transport, and the non-trivial π Berry phase shift in quantum oscillations are observed in the 2D Te Weyl semimetal phase. Our work demonstrates the pressure-induced bandgap closing in the inversion asymmetric narrow bandgap semiconductor 2D Te.

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  4. Abstract

    Contrary to topological insulators, topological semimetals possess a nontrivial chiral anomaly that leads to negative magnetoresistance and are hosts to both conductive bulk states and topological surface states with intriguing transport properties for spintronics. Here, we fabricate highly-ordered metallic Pt3Sn and Pt3SnxFe1-xthin films via sputtering technology. Systematic angular dependence (both in-plane and out-of-plane) study of magnetoresistance presents surprisingly robust quadratic and linear negative longitudinal magnetoresistance features for Pt3Sn and Pt3SnxFe1-x, respectively. We attribute the anomalous negative longitudinal magnetoresistance to the type-II Dirac semimetal phase (pristine Pt3Sn) and/or the formation of tunable Weyl semimetal phases through symmetry breaking processes, such as magnetic-atom doping, as confirmed by first-principles calculations. Furthermore, Pt3Sn and Pt3SnxFe1-xshow the promising performance for facilitating the development of advanced spin-orbit torque devices. These results extend our understanding of chiral anomaly of topological semimetals and can pave the way for exploring novel topological materials for spintronic devices.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Anisotropic planar polaritons - hybrid electromagnetic modes mediated by phonons, plasmons, or excitons - in biaxial two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals crystals have attracted significant attention due to their fundamental physics and potential nanophotonic applications. In this Perspective, we review the properties of planar hyperbolic polaritons and the variety of methods that can be used to experimentally tune them. We argue that such natural, planar hyperbolic media should be fairly common in biaxial and uniaxial 2D and 1D van der Waals crystals, and identify the untapped opportunities they could enable for functional (i.e. ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric) polaritons. Lastly, we provide our perspectives on the technological applications of such planar hyperbolic polaritons.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Abstract

    Surface plasmons, which allow tight confinement of light, suffer from high intrinsic electronic losses. It has been shown that stimulated emission from excited electrons can transfer energy to plasmons and compensate for the high intrinsic losses. To-date, these realizations have relied on introducing an external gain media coupled to the surface plasmon. Here, we propose that plasmons in two-dimensional materials with closely located electron and hole Fermi pockets can be amplified, when an electrical current bias is applied along the displaced electron-hole pockets, without the need for an external gain media. As a prototypical example, we consider WTe2from the family of 1T$${}^{{\prime} }$$-MX2materials, whose electronic structure can be described within a type-II tilted massive Dirac model. We find that the nonlocal plasmonic response experiences prominent gain for experimentally accessible currents on the order of mAμm−1. Furthermore, the group velocity of the plasmon found from the isofrequency curves imply that the amplified plasmons are highly collimated along a direction perpendicular to the Dirac node tilt when the electrical current is applied along it.

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  8. Abstract

    Near-perfect light absorbers (NPLAs), with absorbance,$${{{{{{{\mathcal{A}}}}}}}}$$A, of at least 99%, have a wide range of applications ranging from energy and sensing devices to stealth technologies and secure communications. Previous work on NPLAs has mainly relied upon plasmonic structures or patterned metasurfaces, which require complex nanolithography, limiting their practical applications, particularly for large-area platforms. Here, we use the exceptional band nesting effect in TMDs, combined with a Salisbury screen geometry, to demonstrate NPLAs using only two or three uniform atomic layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The key innovation in our design, verified using theoretical calculations, is to stack monolayer TMDs in such a way as to minimize their interlayer coupling, thus preserving their strong band nesting properties. We experimentally demonstrate two feasible routes to controlling the interlayer coupling: twisted TMD bi-layers and TMD/buffer layer/TMD tri-layer heterostructures. Using these approaches, we demonstrate room-temperature values of$${{{{{{{\mathcal{A}}}}}}}}$$A=95% atλ=2.8 eV with theoretically predicted values as high as 99%. Moreover, the chemical variety of TMDs allows us to design NPLAs covering the entire visible range, paving the way for efficient atomically-thin optoelectronics.

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