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  1. Two heteroleptic monocationic Ir( iii ) complexes bearing 6,6′-bis(7-benzothiazolylfluoren-2-yl)-2,2′-biquinoline as the diimine ligand with different degrees of π-conjugation were synthesized and their photophysics was investigated by spectroscopic techniques and first principles calculations. These complexes possessed two intense absorption bands at 300–380 nm and 380–520 nm in toluene that are predominantly ascribed to the diimine ligand-localized 1 π,π* transition and intraligand charge transfer ( 1 ILCT)/ 1 π,π* transitions, respectively, with the latter being mixed with minor 1 MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer)/ 1 LLCT (ligand-to-ligand charge transfer) configurations. Both complexes also exhibited a spin-forbidden, very weak 3 MLCT/ 3 LLCT/ 3 π,π* absorption band at 520–650 nm. The emission of these complexes appeared in the red spectral region ( λ em : 640 nm for Ir-1 and 648 nm for Ir-2 in toluene) with a quantum yield of <10% and a lifetime of hundreds of ns, which emanated from the 3 ILCT/ 3 π,π* state. The 3 ILCT/ 3 π,π* state also gave rise to broad and moderately strong transient absorption (TA) at ca. 480–800 nm. Extending the π-conjugation of the diimine ligand via inserting CC triplet bonds between the 7-benzothiazolylfluoren-2-yl substituents and 2,2′-biquinoline slightly red-shifted the absorption bands, the emissionmore »bands, and the TA bands in Ir-2 compared to those in Ir-1 that lacks the connecting CC triplet bonds in the diimine ligand. The stronger excited-state absorption with respect to the ground-state absorption at 532 nm led to strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) for ns laser pulses at this wavelength, with the RSA of Ir-2 being slightly stronger than that of Ir-1, which correlated well with their ratios of the excited-state to ground-state absorption cross sections ( σ ex / σ 0 ). These results suggest that extending the π-conjugation of the 2,2′-biquinoline ligand via incorporating the 7-benzothiazolylfluoren-2-yl substituents retained the broad but weak ground-state absorption at 500–650 nm, meanwhile increased the triplet excited-state lifetimes, which resulted in the much stronger triplet excited-state absorption in this spectral region and strong RSA at 532 nm. Thus, these complexes are promising candidates as broadband reverse saturable absorbers.« less
  2. Correction for ‘Synthesis and structural characterization of metal complexes with macrocyclic tetracarbene ligands’ by Fan Fei et al. , New J. Chem. , 2017, 41 , 13442–13453.
  3. The reaction of a pentadentate NHC ligand precursor with Ni(OAc) 2 ·4H 2 O or Pd(OAc) 2 in the presence of a base yields four-coordinate square-planar Ni( ii ) and Pd( ii ) complexes with an unusual ligand generated in situ . A series of experimental studies point to a ring-opening and ring-closing process via novel C–N bond cleavage and formation.
  4. Four macrocyclic hybrid salts with different numbers of benzimidazolium and amine units, [H 2 L][PF 6 ] 2 (L = L 1 , L 2 , L 3 ) and [H 4 L 4 ][PF 6 ] 4 , have been employed as the heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors toward new Ag( i )– and Au( i )–NHC complexes. Three trinuclear and one tetranuclear Ag( i ) complexes 1–4 have been obtained from the reactions of the NHC precursors and Ag 2 O in acetonitrile. Four dinuclear Au( i )–NHC complexes 5–8 have been prepared by reacting the NHC precursors and AuCl(SMe 2 ) in the presence of NaOAc in DMF. The molecular structures of all the complexes are established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The metal ions in the Ag( i ) complexes 1–3 and the Au( i ) complexes 5–7 are coordinated with two macrocyclic NHC ligands to form a sandwiched structure. In contrast, a trinuclear Ag 3 core is located in the cavity of one macrocyclic ligand in [Ag 3 (L 4 )][PF 6 ] 3 ( 4 ). The photoluminescence properties of Au( i ) complexes 5–8 have also been investigated.
  5. A series of Ag( i ) and Cu( i ) complexes [Ag 3 (L 1 ) 2 ][PF 6 ] 3 ( 8 ), [Ag 3 (L 2 ) 2 ][PF 6 ] 3 ( 9 ), [Cu(L 1 )][PF 6 ] ( 10 ) and [Cu(L 2 )][PF 6 ] ( 11 ) have been synthesized by reactions of the tridentate amine-bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligand precursors [H 2 L 1 ][PF 6 ] 2 ( 6 ) and [H 2 L 2 ][PF 6 ] 2 ( 7 ) with Ag 2 O and Cu 2 O, respectively. Complexes 10 and 11 can also be obtained by transmetalation of 8 and 9 , respectively, with 3.0 equiv. of CuCl. A heterometallic Cu/Ag–NHC complex [Cu 2 Ag(L 1 ) 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 ][PF 6 ] 3 ( 12 ) is formed by the reaction of 8 with 2.0 equiv. of CuCl. All complexes have been characterized by NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The luminescence properties of 10–12 in solution and the solid state have been studied. At room temperature, 10–12 exhibit evident luminescence in solution and the solid state. The emission wavelengths aremore »found to be identical at 483 nm in CH 3 CN, but they are 484, 480 and 592 nm in the solid state for 10–12 , respectively. These results suggest that 12 dissociates into two molecules of 10 and Ag( i ) ions in solution. Complex 12 is the first luminescent heterometallic Cu/Ag–NHC complex.« less
  6. A series of Ni( ii ), Pd( ii ) and Pt( ii ) complexes [ML][PF 6 ] 2 [L = L 1 , M = Ni ( 1 ), Pd ( 2 ), Pt ( 3 ); L = L 2 , M = Ni ( 4 ), Pd ( 5 ), Pt ( 6 )] and [Pt(L 2 )(acac)] ( 7 ) have been prepared by the reactions of two tetradentate macrocyclic amine-NHC ligand precursors, [H 2 L 1 ][PF 6 ] 2 and [H 2 L 2 ][PF 6 ] 2 , with Ni(OAc) 2 ·4H 2 O, Pd(OAc) 2 and Pt(acac) 2 in the presence of NaOAc. Complex 7 is isolated along with 6 from the same reaction between [H 2 L 2 ][PF 6 ] 2 and Pt(acac) 2 . There are two atropisomers in 1–3 and two achiral conformers in 4–6 . The crystal structures of 1–3 and one conformer of 4–6 ( 4a–6a ) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The metal ion is found to reside in the cavity of the macrocyclic ring and adopts a square-planar configuration. Detailed NMR studies including variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy reveal a dynamic interconverting process betweenmore »two atropisomers of 1–3 in the solutions via a ring twisting mechanism. Two conformers in the equilibrated solution of 4–6 , probably arising from the orientation of two amine N–H bonds with respect to the coordination plane, exchange slowly. Time-dependent 1 H NMR spectra show that one conformer ( 4a–6a ) in solution converts into the other ( 4b–6b ) via the inversion of the nitrogen atom.« less
  7. Fourteen Ag( i ), Au( i ), Ni( ii ), Pd( ii ), and Pt( ii ) complexes with macrocyclic tetradentate N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands were prepared via reactions between three macrocyclic tetrabenzimidazolium salts and metal precursors. All except two Au complexes were characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Three different structures, including a trinuclear one containing a NHC–Ag–(H 2 O) moiety and a hexanuclear propeller-like supramolecular assembly, are found for Ag–NHC complexes. Nine complexes of group 10 metal ions adopt square-planar geometry, in which the different ring-sizes of the macrocyclic tetracarbene ligands lead to a variation of metal–carbene bond lengths. π–π stackings are observed between the rigid aromatic benzimidazole rings in the nickel group complexes.