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  1. Abstract

    Magnetic fields are now widely recognized as critical at many scales to galactic dynamics and structure, including multiphase pressure balance, dust processing, and star formation. Using imposed magnetic fields cannot reliably model the interstellar medium's (ISM) dynamical structure nor phase interactions. Dynamos must be modeled. ISM models exist of turbulent magnetic fields using small-scale dynamo (SSD). Others model the large-scale dynamo (LSD) organizing magnetic fields at the scale of the disk or spiral arms. Separately, neither can fully describe the galactic magnetic field dynamics nor topology. We model the LSD and SSD together at a sufficient resolution to use the low explicit Lagrangian resistivity required. The galactic SSD saturates within 20 Myr. We show that the SSD is quite insensitive to the presence of an LSD and is even stronger in the presence of a large-scale shear flow. The LSD grows more slowly in the presence of SSD, saturating after 5 Gyr versus 1–2 Gyr in studies where the SSD is weak or absent. The LSD primarily grows in warm gas in the galactic midplane. Saturation of the LSD occurs due toα-quenching near the midplane as the growing mean-field produces a magneticαthat opposes the kineticα. The magnetic energy in our models of the LSD shows a slightly sublinear response to increasing resolution, indicating that we are converging toward the physical solution at 1 pc resolution. Clustering supernovae in OB associations increases the growth rates for both the SSD and the LSD, compared to a horizontally uniform supernova distribution.

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    The cold neutral medium (CNM) is an important part of the galactic gas cycle and a precondition for the formation of molecular and star-forming gas, yet its distribution is still not fully understood. In this work, we present extremely high resolution simulations of spiral galaxies with time-dependent chemistry such that we can track the formation of the CNM, its distribution within the galaxy, and its correlation with star formation. We find no strong radial dependence between the CNM fraction and total neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) due to the decreasing interstellar radiation field counterbalancing the decreasing gas column density at larger galactic radii. However, the CNM fraction does increase in spiral arms where the CNM distribution is clumpy, rather than continuous, overlapping more closely with H2. The CNM does not extend out radially as far as H i, and the vertical scale height is smaller in the outer galaxy compared to H i with no flaring. The CNM column density scales with total mid-plane pressure and disappears from the gas phase below values of PT/kB = 1000 K cm−3. We find that the star formation rate density follows a similar scaling law with CNM column density to the total gas Kennicutt–Schmidt law. In the outer galaxy, we produce realistic vertical velocity dispersions in the H i purely from galactic dynamics, but our models do not predict CNM at the extremely large radii observed in H i absorption studies of the Milky Way. We suggest that extended spiral arms might produce isolated clumps of CNM at these radii.

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  3. Abstract

    Magnetic fields grow quickly, even at early cosmological times, suggesting the action of a small-scale dynamo (SSD) in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. Many studies have focused on idealized, isotropic, homogeneous, turbulent driving of the SSD. Here we analyze more realistic simulations of supernova-driven turbulence to understand how it drives an SSD. We find that SSD growth rates are intermittently variable as a result of the evolving multiphase ISM structure. Rapid growth in the magnetic field typically occurs in hot gas, with the highest overall growth rates occurring when the fractional volume of hot gas is large. SSD growth rates correlate most strongly with vorticity and fluid Reynolds number, which also both correlate strongly with gas temperature. Rotational energy exceeds irrotational energy in all phases, but particularly in the hot phase while SSD growth is most rapid. Supernova rate does not significantly affect the ISM average kinetic energy density. Rather, higher temperatures associated with high supernova rates tend to increase SSD growth rates. SSD saturates with total magnetic energy density around 5% of equipartition to kinetic energy density, increasing slightly with magnetic Prandtl number. While magnetic energy density in the hot gas can exceed that of the other phases when SSD grows most rapidly, it saturates below 5% of equipartition with kinetic energy in the hot gas, while in the cold gas it attains 100%. Fast, intermittent growth of the magnetic field appears to be a characteristic behavior of supernova-driven, multiphase turbulence.

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    Protoplanetary discs spend their lives in the dense environment of a star-forming region. While there, they can be affected by nearby stars through external photoevaporation and dynamic truncations. We present simulations that use the amuse framework to couple the torch model for star cluster formation from a molecular cloud with a model for the evolution of protoplanetary discs under these two environmental processes. We compare simulations with and without extinction of photoevaporation-driving radiation. We find that the majority of discs in our simulations are considerably shielded from photoevaporation-driving radiation for at least 0.5 Myr after the formation of the first massive stars. Radiation shielding increases disc lifetimes by an order of magnitude and can let a disc retain more solid material for planet formation. The reduction in external photoevaporation leaves discs larger and more easily dynamically truncated, although external photoevaporation remains the dominant mass-loss process. Finally, we find that the correlation between disc mass and projected distance to the most massive nearby star (often interpreted as a sign of external photoevaporation) can be erased by the presence of less massive stars that dominate their local radiation field. Overall, we find that the presence and dynamics of gas in embedded clusters with massive stars is important for the evolution of protoplanetary discs.

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    We perform simulations of star cluster formation to investigate the morphological evolution of embedded star clusters in the earliest stages of their evolution. We conduct our simulations with Torch, which uses the Amuse framework to couple state-of-the-art stellar dynamics to star formation, radiation, stellar winds, and hydrodynamics in Flash. We simulate a suite of 104 M⊙ clouds at 0.0683 pc resolution for ∼2 Myr after the onset of star formation, with virial parameters α = 0.8, 2.0, 4.0 and different random samplings of the stellar initial mass function and prescriptions for primordial binaries. Our simulations result in a population of embedded clusters with realistic morphologies (sizes, densities, and ellipticities) that reproduce the known trend of clouds with higher initial α having lower star formation efficiencies. Our key results are as follows: (1) Cluster mass growth is not monotonic, and clusters can lose up to half of their mass while they are embedded. (2) Cluster morphology is not correlated with cluster mass and changes over ∼0.01 Myr time-scales. (3) The morphology of an embedded cluster is not indicative of its long-term evolution but only of its recent history: radius and ellipticity increase sharply when a cluster accretes stars. (4) The dynamical evolution of very young embedded clusters with masses ≲1000 M⊙ is dominated by the overall gravitational potential of the star-forming region rather than by internal dynamical processes such as two- or few-body relaxation.

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    Many studies concluded that magnetic fields suppress star formation in molecular clouds and Milky Way like galaxies. However, most of these studies are based on fully developed fields that have reached the saturation level, with little work on investigating how an initial weak primordial field affects star formation in low metallicity environments. In this paper, we investigate the impact of a weak initial field on low metallicity dwarf galaxies. We perform high-resolution arepo simulations of five isolated dwarf galaxies. Two models are hydrodynamical, two start with a primordial magnetic field of 10$^{-6} \, \mu$G and different sub-solar metallicities, and one starts with a saturated field of 10$^{-2} \, \mu$G. All models include a non-equilibrium, time-dependent chemical network that includes the effects of gas shielding from the ambient ultraviolet field. Sink particles form directly from the gravitational collapse of gas and are treated as star-forming clumps that can accrete gas. We vary the ambient uniform far ultraviolet field, and cosmic ray ionization rate between 1 per cent and 10 per cent of solar values. We find that the magnetic field has little impact on the global star formation rate (SFR), which is in tension with some previously published results. We further find that the initial field strength has little impact on the global SFR. We show that an increase in the mass fractions of both molecular hydrogen and cold gas, along with changes in the perpendicular gas velocity dispersion and the magnetic field acting in the weak-field model, overcome the expected suppression in star formation.

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  7. Abstract

    Magnetic fields are dynamically important in the diffuse interstellar medium. Understanding how gravitationally bound, star-forming clouds form requires modeling of the fields in a self-consistent, supernova-driven, turbulent, magnetized, stratified disk. We employ the FLASH magnetohydrodynamics code to follow the formation and early evolution of clouds with final masses of 3–8 × 103Mwithin such a simulation. We use the code’s adaptive mesh refinement capabilities to concentrate numerical resolution in zoom-in regions covering single clouds, allowing us to investigate the detailed dynamics and field structure of individual self-gravitating clouds in a consistent background medium. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that dense clouds are dynamically evolving objects far from magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. We find that the cloud envelopes are magnetically supported with field lines parallel to density gradients and flow velocity, as indicated by the histogram of relative orientations and other statistical measures. In contrast, the dense cores of the clouds are gravitationally dominated, with gravitational energy exceeding internal, kinetic, or magnetic energy and accelerations due to gravity exceeding those due to magnetic or thermal pressure gradients. In these regions, field directions vary strongly, with a slight preference toward being perpendicular to density gradients, as shown by three-dimensional histograms of relative orientation.

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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Abstract We present an update to the framework called Simulator of Galaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission ( sígame ). sígame derives line emission in the far-infrared (FIR) for galaxies in particle-based cosmological hydrodynamics simulations by applying radiative transfer and physics recipes via a postprocessing step after completion of the simulation. In this version, a new technique is developed to model higher gas densities by parameterizing the probability distribution function (PDF) of the gas density in higher-resolution simulations run with the pseudo-Lagrangian, Voronoi mesh code arepo . The parameterized PDFs are used as a look-up table, and reach higher densities than in previous work. sígame v3 is tested on redshift z = 0 galaxies drawn from the simba cosmological simulation for eight FIR emission lines tracing vastly different phases of the interstellar medium. This version of sígame includes dust radiative transfer with S kirt and high-resolution photoionization models with C loudy , the latter sampled according to the density PDF of the arepo simulations to augment the densities in the cosmological simulation. The quartile distributions of the predicted line luminosities overlap with the observed range for nearby galaxies of similar star formation rate (SFR) for all but two emission lines: [O i ]63 and CO(3–2), which are overestimated by median factors of 1.3 and 1.0 dex, respectively, compared to the observed line–SFR relation of mixed-type galaxies. We attribute the remaining disagreement with observations to the lack of precise attenuation of the interstellar light on sub-grid scales (≲200 pc) and differences in sample selection. 
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  10. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT To investigate how molecular clouds react to different environmental conditions at a galactic scale, we present a catalogue of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) resolved down to masses of ∼10 M⊙ from a simulation of the entire disc of an interacting M51-like galaxy and a comparable isolated galaxy. Our model includes time-dependent gas chemistry, sink particles for star formation, and supernova feedback, meaning we are not reliant on star formation recipes based on threshold densities and can follow the physics of the cold molecular phase. We extract GMCs from the simulations and analyse their properties. In the disc of our simulated galaxies, spiral arms seem to act merely as snowplows, gathering gas, and clouds without dramatically affecting their properties. In the centre of the galaxy, on the other hand, environmental conditions lead to larger, more massive clouds. While the galaxy interaction has little effect on cloud masses and sizes, it does promote the formation of counter-rotating clouds. We find that the identified clouds seem to be largely gravitationally unbound at first glance, but a closer analysis of the hierarchical structure of the molecular interstellar medium shows that there is a large range of virial parameters with a smooth transition from unbound to mostly bound for the densest structures. The common observation that clouds appear to be virialized entities may therefore be due to CO bright emission highlighting a specific level in this hierarchical binding sequence. The small fraction of gravitationally bound structures found suggests that low galactic star formation efficiencies may be set by the process of cloud formation and initial collapse. 
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