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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. A bstract Heavy particles with masses much bigger than the inflationary Hubble scale H * , can get non-adiabatically pair produced during inflation through their couplings to the inflaton. If such couplings give rise to time-dependent masses for the heavy particles, then following their production, the heavy particles modify the curvature perturbation around their locations in a time-dependent and scale non-invariant manner. This results into a non-trivial spatial profile of the curvature perturbation that is preserved on superhorizon scales and eventually generates localized hot or cold spots on the CMB. We explore this phenomenon by studying the inflationary production of heavy scalars and derive the final temperature profile of the spots on the CMB by taking into account the subhorizon evolution, focusing in particular on the parameter space where pairwise hot spots (PHS) arise. When the heavy scalar has an $$ \mathcal{O} $$ O (1) coupling to the inflaton, we show that for an idealized situation where the dominant background to the PHS signal comes from the standard CMB fluctuations themselves, a simple position space search based on applying a temperature cut, can be sensitive to heavy particle masses M 0 /H * ∼ $$ \mathcal{O} $$ O (100). Themore »corresponding PHS signal also modifies the CMB power spectra and bispectra, although the corrections are below (outside) the sensitivity of current measurements (searches).« less
  4. A bstract We calculate the $$ \mathcal{O}\left({\left\langle {H}^{\dagger }H\right\rangle}^2/{\Lambda}^4\right) $$ O H † H 2 / Λ 4 corrections to LEP electroweak precision data using the geometric formulation of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). We report our results in simple-to-use interpolation tables that allow the interpretation of this data set to dimension eight for the first time. We demonstrate the impact of these previously unknown terms in the case of a general analysis in the SMEFT, and also in the cases of two distinct models matched to dimension eight. Neglecting such dimension-eight corrections to LEP observables introduces a theoretical error in SMEFT studies. We report some preliminary studies defining such a theory error, explicitly demonstrating the effect of previously unknown dimension-eight SMEFT corrections on LEP observables.
  5. A bstract In this paper, we explore the impact of extra radiation on predictions of $$ pp\to \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{X},\mathrm{X}=\mathrm{h}/{\mathrm{W}}^{\pm }/\mathrm{Z} $$ pp → t t ¯ X , X = h / W ± / Z processes within the dimension-6 SMEFT framework. While full next-to-leading order calculations are of course preferred, they are not always practical, and so it is useful to be able to capture the impacts of extra radiation using leading-order matrix elements matched to the parton shower and merged. While a matched/merged leading-order calculation for $$ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{X} $$ t t ¯ X is not expected to reproduce the next-to-leading order inclusive cross section precisely, we show that it does capture the relative impact of the EFT effects by considering the ratio of matched SMEFT inclusive cross sections to Standard Model values, $$ {\sigma}_{\mathrm{SM}\mathrm{EFT}}\left(\mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{X}+\mathrm{j}\right)/{\sigma}_{\mathrm{SM}}\left(\mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{X}+\mathrm{j}\right)\equiv \mu $$ σ SMEFT t t ¯ X + j / σ SM t t ¯ X + j ≡ μ . Furthermore, we compare leading order calculations with and without extra radiation and find several cases, such as the effect of the operator $$ \left({\varphi}^{\dagger }i{\overleftrightarrow{D}}_{\mu}\varphi \right)\left(\overline{t}{\gamma}^{\mu }t\right) $$ φ † i D ↔ μ φ t ¯ γ μ t on $$ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{h}more »$$ t t ¯ h and $$ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{W} $$ t t ¯ W , for which the relative cross section prediction increases by more than 10% — significantly larger than the uncertainty derived by varying the input scales in the calculation, including the additional scales required for matching and merging. Being leading order at heart, matching and merging can be applied to all operators and processes relevant to $$ pp\to \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{X},\mathrm{X}=\mathrm{h}/{\mathrm{W}}^{\pm }/\mathrm{Z}+\mathrm{jet} $$ pp → t t ¯ X , X = h / W ± / Z + jet , is computationally fast and not susceptible to negative weights. Therefore, it is a useful approach in $$ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{X} $$ t t ¯ X + jet studies where complete next-to-leading order results are currently unavailable or unwieldy.« less
  6. A bstract The Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) theoretical framework is increasingly used to interpret particle physics measurements and constrain physics beyond the Standard Model. We investigate the truncation of the effective-operator expansion using the geometric formulation of the SMEFT, which allows exact solutions, up to mass-dimension eight. Using this construction, we compare the exact solution to the expansion at $$ \mathcal{O} $$ O ( v 2 / Λ 2 ), partial $$ \mathcal{O} $$ O ( v 4 / Λ 4 ) using a subset of terms with dimension-6 operators, and full $$ \mathcal{O} $$ O ( v 4 / Λ 4 ), where v is the vacuum expectation value and Λ is the scale of new physics. This comparison is performed for general values of the coefficients, and for the specific model of a heavy U(1) gauge field kinetically mixed with the Standard Model. We additionally determine the input-parameter scheme dependence at all orders in v/ Λ, and show that this dependence increases at higher orders in v/ Λ.
  7. Safeguarding Earth’s tree diversity is a conservation priority due to the importance of trees for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services such as carbon sequestration. Here, we improve the foundation for effective conservation of global tree diversity by analyzing a recently developed database of tree species covering 46,752 species. We quantify range protection and anthropogenic pressures for each species and develop conservation priorities across taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity dimensions. We also assess the effectiveness of several influential proposed conservation prioritization frameworks to protect the top 17% and top 50% of tree priority areas. We find that an average of 50.2% of a tree species’ range occurs in 110-km grid cells without any protected areas (PAs), with 6,377 small-range tree species fully unprotected, and that 83% of tree species experience nonnegligible human pressure across their range on average. Protecting high-priority areas for the top 17% and 50% priority thresholds would increase the average protected proportion of each tree species’ range to 65.5% and 82.6%, respectively, leaving many fewer species (2,151 and 2,010) completely unprotected. The priority areas identified for trees match well to the Global 200 Ecoregions framework, revealing that priority areas for trees would in large part also optimizemore »protection for terrestrial biodiversity overall. Based on range estimates for >46,000 tree species, our findings show that a large proportion of tree species receive limited protection by current PAs and are under substantial human pressure. Improved protection of biodiversity overall would also strongly benefit global tree diversity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2023
  8. Bouffanais, Roland (Ed.)
    Understanding the emergence, co-evolution, and convergence of science and technology (S&T) areas offers competitive intelligence for researchers, managers, policy makers, and others. This paper presents new funding, publication, and scholarly network metrics and visualizations that were validated via expert surveys. The metrics and visualizations exemplify the emergence and convergence of three areas of strategic interest: artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and internet of things (IoT) over the last 20 years (1998-2017). For 32,716 publications and 4,497 NSF awards, we identify their topical coverage (using the UCSD map of science), evolving co-author networks, and increasing convergence. The results support data-driven decision making when setting proper research and development (R&D) priorities; developing future S&T investment strategies; or performing effective research program assessment.