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  1. Resilient teams overcome sudden, dynamic changes by enacting rapid, adaptive responses that maintain system effectiveness. We analyzed two experiments on human-autonomy teams (HATs) operating a simulated remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) and correlated dynamical measures of resilience with measures of team performance. Across both experiments, HATs experienced automation and autonomy failures, using a Wizard of Oz paradigm. Team performance was measured in multiple ways, using a mission-level performance score, a target processing efficiency score, a failure overcome score, and a ground truth resilience score. Novel dynamical systems metrics of resilience measured the timing of system reorganization in response to failures across RPAS layers, including vehicle, controls, communications layers, and the system overall. Time to achieve extreme values of reorganization and novelty of reorganization were consistently correlated with target processing efficiency and ground truth resilience across both studies. Correlations with mission-level performance and the overcome score were apparent but less consistent. Across both studies, teams displayed greater system reorganization during failures compared to routine task conditions. The second experiment revealed differential effects of team training focused on coordination coaching and trust calibration. These results inform the measurement and training of resilience in HATs using objective, real-time resilience analysis.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. While there is increased interest in how trust spreads in Human Autonomy Teams (HATs), most trust measurements are subjective and do not examine real-time changes in trust. To develop a trust metric that consists of objective variables influenced by trust/distrust manipulations, we conducted an Interactive hybrid Cognitive Task Analysis (IhCTA) for a Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) HAT. The IhCTA adapted parts of the hybrid Cognitive Task Analysis (hCTA) framework. In this paper, we present the four steps of the IhCTA approach, including 1) generating a scenario task overview, 2) generating teammate-specific event flow diagrams, 3) identifying interactions and interdependencies impacted by trust/distrust manipulations, and 4) processing RPAS variables based on the IhCTA to create a metric. We demonstrate the application of the metric through a case study that examines how the influence of specific interactions on team state changes before and after the spread of distrust.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. Non-profit driven indie game development represents a growing open and participatory game production model as an alternative to the traditional mainstream gaming industry. However, this community is also facing and coping with tensions and dilemmas brought by its focus on artistic and cultural values over economic benefits. Using 28 interviews with indie game developers with a non-profit agenda across various cultures, we investigate the challenges non-profit driven indie game developers face, which mainly emerge in their personal or collaborative labor and their endeavors to secure sustainable resources and produce quality products. Our investigation extends the current HCI knowledge of the democratization of technology and its impact on the trajectory of innovating, designing, and producing future (gaming) technologies. These insights may help increase the opportunities for and retention of previously underrepresented groups in technology production and inform effective decision/policy making to better support the creativity industry in the future. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2024
  4. Extensive HCI research has investigated how to prevent and mitigate harassment in virtual spaces, particularly by leveraging human-based and Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based moderation. However, social Virtual Reality (VR) constitutes a novel social space that faces both intensified harassment challenges and a lack of consensus on how moderation should be approached to address such harassment. Drawing on 39 interviews with social VR users with diverse backgrounds, we investigate the perceived opportunities and limitations for leveraging AI-based moderation to address emergent harassment in social VR, and how future AI moderators can be designed to enhance such opportunities and address limitations. We provide the first empirical investigation into re-envisioning AI’s new roles in innovating content moderation approaches to better combat harassment in social VR. We also highlight important principles for designing future AI-based moderation incorporating user-human-AI collaboration to achieve safer and more nuanced online spaces. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2024
  5. Computer-mediated collaboration has long been a core research interest in CSCW and HCI. As online social spaces continue to evolve towards more immersive and higher fidelity experiences, more research is still needed to investigate how emerging novel technology may foster and support new and more nuanced forms and experiences of collaboration in virtual environments. Using 30 interviews, this paper focuses on what people may collaborate on and how they collaborate in social Virtual Reality (VR). We broaden current studies on computer-mediated collaboration by highlighting the importance of embodiment for co-presence and communication, replicating offline collaborative activities, and supporting the seamless interplay of work, play, and mundane experiences in everyday lives for experiencing and conceptualizing collaboration in emerging virtual environments. We also propose potential design implications that could further support everyday collaborative activities in social VR 
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