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  1. Abstract Upcoming LIGO–Virgo–KAGRA (LVK) observing runs are expected to detect a variety of inspiralling gravitational-wave (GW) events that come from black hole and neutron star binary mergers. Detection of noninspiral GW sources is also anticipated. We report the discovery of a new class of noninspiral GW sources—the end states of massive stars—that can produce the brightest simulated stochastic GW burst signal in the LVK bands known to date, and could be detectable in LVK run A+. Some dying massive stars launch bipolar relativistic jets, which inflate a turbulent energetic bubble—cocoon—inside of the star. We simulate such a system using state-of-the-art 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and show that these cocoons emit quasi-isotropic GW emission in the LVK band, ∼10–100 Hz, over a characteristic jet activity timescale ∼10–100 s. Our first-principles simulations show that jets exhibit a wobbling behavior, in which case cocoon-powered GWs might be detected already in LVK run A+, but it is more likely that these GWs will be detected by the third-generation GW detectors with an estimated rate of ∼10 events yr −1 . The detection rate drops to ∼1% of that value if all jets were to feature a traditional axisymmetric structure instead of a wobble. Accompanied by electromagnetic emission from the energetic core-collapse supernova and the cocoon, we predict that collapsars are powerful multimessenger events. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024

    In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate the time evolution of the proto-neutron star (PNS) structure from the neutrino signal in a core-collapse supernova (CCSN). Employing recent results from multidimensional CCSN simulations, we delve into a relation between the total emitted neutrino energy (TONE) and PNS mass/radius, and we find that they are strongly correlated with each other. We fit the relation by simple polynomial functions connecting the TONE to the mass and radius of the PNS as a function of time. By combining another fitting function representing the correlation between the TONE and the cumulative number of events at each neutrino observatory, the PNS mass and radius can be retrieved from purely observed neutrino data. We demonstrate retrievals of PNS mass and radius from mock data of the neutrino signal, and we assess the capability of our proposed method. While underlining the limitations of the method, we also discuss the importance of the joint analysis with the gravitational wave signal. This would reduce uncertainties of parameter estimations in our method, and may narrow down the possible neutrino oscillation model. The proposed method is a very easy and inexpensive computation, which will be useful in real data analysis of the CCSN neutrino signal.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We study theoretical neutrino signals from core-collapse supernova (CCSN) computed using axisymmetric CCSN simulations that cover the post-bounce phase up to ∼4 s. We provide basic quantities of the neutrino signals such as event rates, energy spectra, and cumulative number of events at some terrestrial neutrino detectors, and then discuss some new features in the late phase that emerge in our models. Contrary to popular belief, neutrino emissions in the late phase are not always steady, but rather have temporal fluctuations, the vigour of which hinges on the CCSN model and neutrino flavour. We find that such temporal variations are not primarily driven by proto-neutron star convection, but by fallback accretion in exploding models. We assess the detectability of these temporal variations, and find that IceCube is the most promising detector with which to resolve them. We also update fitting formulae first proposed in our previous paper for which the total neutrino energy emitted at the CCSN source is estimated from the cumulative number of events in each detector. This will be a powerful technique with which to analyse real observations, particularly for low-statistics data. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present a new method by which to retrieve energy spectrum for all falvours of neutrinos from core-collapse supernova (CCSN). In the retrieval process, we do not assume any analytic formulas to express the energy spectrum of neutrinos but rather take a direct way of spectrum reconstruction from the observed data; the singular value decomposition algorithm with a newly developed adaptive energy-gridding technique is adopted. We employ three independent reaction channels having different flavour sensitivity to neutrinos. Two reaction channels, inverse beta decay on proton and elastic scattering on electrons, from a water Cherenkov detector such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and Hyper-Kamiokande (HK), and a charged current reaction channel with Argon from the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) are adopted. Given neutrino oscillation models, we iteratively search the neutrino energy spectra at the CCSN source until they provide the consistent event counts in the three reaction channels. We test the capability of our method by demonstrating the spectrum retrieval to a theoretical neutrino data computed by our recent three-dimensional CCSN simulation. Although the energy spectrum with either electron-type or electron-type antineutrinos at the CCSN source has relatively large error compared to that of other species, the joint analysis with HK + DUNE or SK + DUNE will provide precise energy spectrum of all flavours of neutrinos at the source. Finally, we discuss perspectives for improvements of our method by using neutrino data of other detectors. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Based on our recent three-dimensional core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations including both exploding and non-exploding models, we study the detailed neutrino signals in representative terrestrial neutrino observatories, namely Super-Kamiokande (Hyper-Kamiokande), DUNE, JUNO, and IceCube. We find that the physical origin of difference in the neutrino signals between 1D and 3D is mainly proto-neutron-star convection. We study the temporal and angular variations of the neutrino signals and discuss the detectability of the time variations driven by the spiral standing accretion shock instability (spiral SASI) when it emerges for non-exploding models. In addition, we determine that there can be a large angular asymmetry in the event rate (${\gtrsim} 50 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), but the time-integrated signal has a relatively modest asymmetry (${\lesssim} 20 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$). Both features are associated with the lepton-number emission self-sustained asymmetry and the spiral SASI. Moreover, our analysis suggests that there is an interesting correlation between the total neutrino energy (TONE) and the cumulative number of neutrino events in each detector, a correlation that can facilitate data analyses of real observations. We demonstrate the retrieval of neutrino energy spectra for all flavours of neutrino by applying a novel spectrum reconstruction technique to the data from multiple detectors. We find that this new method is capable of estimating the TONE within the error of ∼20 per cent if the distance to the CCSN is ≲6 kpc. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Using our new state-of-the-art core-collapse supernova (CCSN) code Fornax, we explore the dependence upon spatial resolution of the outcome and character of three-dimensional (3D) supernova simulations. For the same 19 M⊙ progenitor star, energy and radial binning, neutrino microphysics, and nuclear equation of state, changing only the number of angular bins in the θ and ϕ directions, we witness that our lowest resolution 3D simulation does not explode. However, when jumping progressively up in resolution by factors of two in each angular direction on our spherical-polar grid, models then explode, and explode slightly more vigorously with increasing resolution. This suggests that there can be a qualitative dependence of the outcome of 3D CCSN simulations upon spatial resolution. The critical aspect of higher spatial resolution is the adequate capturing of the physics of neutrino-driven turbulence, in particular its Reynolds stress. The greater numerical viscosity of lower resolution simulations results in greater drag on the turbulent eddies that embody turbulent stress, and, hence, in a diminution of their vigor. Turbulent stress not only pushes the temporarily stalled shock further out, but bootstraps a concomitant increase in the deposited neutrino power. Both effects together lie at the core of the resolution dependence we observe. 
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