Cool materials and rooftop vegetation help achieve urban heating mitigation as they can reduce building cooling demands. This study assesses the cooling potential of different mitigation technologies using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)- taking case of a tropical coastal climate in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. The model was validated using data from six meteorological sites. The cooling potential of eight mitigation scenarios was evaluated for: three cool roofs, four green roofs, and their combination (cool-city). The sensible heat, latent heat, heat storage, 2-m ambient temperature, surface temperature, air temperature, roof temperature, and urban canopy temperature was calculated. The effects on the urban boundary layer were also investigated.
The different scenarios reduced the daytime temperature of various urban components, and the effect varied nearly linearly with increasing albedo and green roof fractions. For example, the maximum ambient temperature decreased by 3.6 °C, 0.9 °C, and 1.4 °C for a cool roof with 85% albedo, 100% rooftop vegetation, and their combination.
The cost of different mitigation scenarios was assumed to depend on the construction options, location, and market prices. The potential for price per square meter and corresponding temperature decreased was related to one another. Recognizing the complex relationship between scenarios and construction options, themore »
Higher green fraction, cool materials, and their combination generally reduced winds and enhanced buoyancy. The surface changes alter the lower atmospheric dynamics such as low-level vertical mixing and a shallower boundary layer and weakened horizontal convective rolls during afternoon hours. Although cool materials offer the highest temperature reductions, the cooling resulting from its combination and a green roof strategy could mitigate or reverse the summertime heat island effect. The results highlight the possibilities for heat mitigation and offer insight into the different strategies and costs for mitigating the urban heating and cooling demands.