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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT

    Observations of structure at subgalactic scales are crucial for probing the properties of dark matter, which is the dominant source of gravity in the universe. It will become increasingly important for future surveys to distinguish between line-of-sight haloes and subhalos to avoid wrong inferences on the nature of dark matter. We reanalyse a subgalactic structure (in lens JVAS B1938 + 666) that has been previously found using the gravitational imaging technique in galaxy-galaxy lensing systems. This structure has been assumed to be a satellite in the halo of the main lens galaxy. We fit the redshift of the perturber of the system as a free parameter, using the multiplane thin-lens approximation, and find that the redshift of the perturber is $z_\mathrm{int} = 1.42^{+0.10}_{-0.15}$ (with a main lens redshift of z = 0.881). Our analysis indicates that this structure is more massive than the previous result by an order of magnitude. This constitutes the first dark perturber shown to be a line-of-sight halo with a gravitational lensing method.

  3. There is an increased interest in model agnostic search strategies for physics beyond the standard model at the Large Hadron Collider.We introduce a Deep Set Variational Autoencoder and present results on the Dark Machines Anomaly Score Challenge.We find that the method attains the best anomaly detection ability when there is no decoding step for the network, and the anomaly score is based solely on the representation within the encoded latent space.This method was one of the top-performing models in the Dark Machines Challenge, both for the open data sets as well as the blinded data sets.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. A bstract Anomaly detection relies on designing a score to determine whether a particular event is uncharacteristic of a given background distribution. One way to define a score is to use autoencoders, which rely on the ability to reconstruct certain types of data (background) but not others (signals). In this paper, we study some challenges associated with variational autoencoders, such as the dependence on hyperparameters and the metric used, in the context of anomalous signal (top and W ) jets in a QCD background. We find that the hyperparameter choices strongly affect the network performance and that the optimal parameters for one signal are non-optimal for another. In exploring the networks, we uncover a connection between the latent space of a variational autoencoder trained using mean-squared-error and the optimal transport distances within the dataset. We then show that optimal transport distances to representative events in the background dataset can be used directly for anomaly detection, with performance comparable to the autoencoders. Whether using autoencoders or optimal transport distances for anomaly detection, we find that the choices that best represent the background are not necessarily best for signal identification. These challenges with unsupervised anomaly detection bolster the case for additional explorationmore »of semi-supervised or alternative approaches.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. A bstract One of the key tasks of any particle collider is measurement. In practice, this is often done by fitting data to a simulation, which depends on many parameters. Sometimes, when the effects of varying different parameters are highly correlated, a large ensemble of data may be needed to resolve parameter-space degeneracies. An important example is measuring the top-quark mass, where other physical and unphysical parameters in the simulation must be profiled when fitting the top-quark mass parameter. We compare four different methodologies for top-quark mass measurement: a classical histogram fit similar to one commonly used in experiment augmented by soft-drop jet grooming; a 2D profile likelihood fit with a nuisance parameter; a machine-learning method called DCTR; and a linear regression approach, either using a least-squares fit or with a dense linearly-activated neural network. Despite the fact that individual events are totally uncorrelated, we find that the linear regression methods work most effectively when we input an ensemble of events sorted by mass, rather than training them on individual events. Although all methods provide robust extraction of the top-quark mass parameter, the linear network does marginally best and is remarkably simple. For the top study, we conclude that themore »Monte-Carlo-based uncertainty on current extractions of the top-quark mass from LHC data can be reduced significantly (by perhaps a factor of 2) using networks trained on sorted event ensembles. More generally, machine learning from ensembles for parameter estimation has broad potential for collider physics measurements.« less
  6. We describe the outcome of a data challenge conducted as part of the Dark Machines (https://www.darkmachines.org) initiative and the Les Houches 2019 workshop on Physics at TeV colliders. The challenged aims to detect signals of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using unsupervised machine learning algorithms. First, we propose how an anomaly score could be implemented to define model-independent signal regions in LHC searches. We define and describe a large benchmark dataset, consisting of >1 billion simulated LHC events corresponding to 10\, fb^{-1} 10 f b − 1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. We then review a wide range of anomaly detection and density estimation algorithms, developed in the context of the data challenge, and we measure their performance in a set of realistic analysis environments. We draw a number of useful conclusions that will aid the development of unsupervised new physics searches during the third run of the LHC, and provide our benchmark dataset for future studies at https://www.phenoMLdata.org. Code to reproduce the analysis is provided at https://github.com/bostdiek/DarkMachines-UnsupervisedChallenge.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023