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  1. Rare-earth iron garnets with large magnetic gyrotropy, made with reduced thermal budgets, are ideal magneto-optical materials for integrated isolators. However, reduced thermal budgets impact Faraday rotation by limiting crystallization, and characterization of crystallinity is limited by resolution or scannable area. Here, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to measure crystallinity in cerium substituted yttrium- and terbium-iron garnets (CeYIG and CeTbIG) grown on planar Si, crystallized using one-step rapid thermal processes, leading to large Faraday rotations > −3500 °/cm at 1550 nm. Varying degrees of crystallinity are observed in planar Si and patterned Si waveguides, and specific dependences of crystallite size are attributed to the nucleation/growth processes of the garnets and the lateral dimensions of the waveguide. On the other hand, a low thermal budget alternative–exfoliated CeTbIG nanosheets–are fully crystalline and maintain high Faraday rotations of −3200 °/cm on par with monolithically integrated thin film garnets.

  2. Abstract

    Image sensors with internal computing capability enable in-sensor computing that can significantly reduce the communication latency and power consumption for machine vision in distributed systems and robotics. Two-dimensional semiconductors have many advantages in realizing such intelligent vision sensors because of their tunable electrical and optical properties and amenability for heterogeneous integration. Here, we report a multifunctional infrared image sensor based on an array of black phosphorous programmable phototransistors (bP-PPT). By controlling the stored charges in the gate dielectric layers electrically and optically, the bP-PPT’s electrical conductance and photoresponsivity can be locally or remotely programmed with 5-bit precision to implement an in-sensor convolutional neural network (CNN). The sensor array can receive optical images transmitted over a broad spectral range in the infrared and perform inference computation to process and recognize the images with 92% accuracy. The demonstrated bP image sensor array can be scaled up to build a more complex vision-sensory neural network, which will find many promising applications for distributed and remote multispectral sensing.

  3. A photonic generative adversarial network that harnesses optoelectronic noises to generate handwritten numbers is demonstrated.
  4. Abstract

    Excitons are elementary optical excitation in semiconductors. The ability to manipulate and transport these quasiparticles would enable excitonic circuits and devices for quantum photonic technologies. Recently, interlayer excitons in 2D semiconductors have emerged as a promising candidate for engineering excitonic devices due to their long lifetime, large exciton binding energy, and gate tunability. However, the charge-neutral nature of the excitons leads to weak response to the in-plane electric field and thus inhibits transport beyond the diffusion length. Here, we demonstrate the directional transport of interlayer excitons in bilayer WSe2driven by the propagating potential traps induced by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We show that at 100 K, the SAW-driven excitonic transport is activated above a threshold acoustic power and reaches 20 μm, a distance at least ten times longer than the diffusion length and only limited by the device size. Temperature-dependent measurement reveals the transition from the diffusion-limited regime at low temperature to the acoustic field-driven regime at elevated temperature. Our work shows that acoustic waves are an effective, contact-free means to control exciton dynamics and transport, promising for realizing 2D materials-based excitonic devices such as exciton transistors, switches, and transducers up to room temperature.