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  1. Abstract

    We present Keck Cosmic Web Imager Lyαintegral field spectroscopy of the fields surrounding 14 damped Lyαabsorbers (DLAs) atz≈ 2. Of these 14 DLAs, nine have high metallicities ([M/H] > − 0.3), and four of those nine feature a CO-emitting galaxy at an impact parameter ≲30 kpc. Our search reaches median Lyαline flux sensitivities of ∼2 × 10−17erg s−1cm−2over apertures of ∼6 kpc and out to impact parameters of ∼50 kpc. We recover the Lyαflux of three known Lyα-emitting Hi-selected galaxies in our sample. In addition, we find two Lyαemitters at impact parameters of ≈50–70 kpc from the high-metallicity DLA atz≈ 1.96 toward QSO B0551-366. This field also contains a massive CO-emitting galaxy at an impact parameter of ≈15 kpc. Apart from the field with QSO B0551-366, we do not detect significant Lyαemission in any of the remaining eight high-metallicity DLA fields. Considering the depth of our observations and our ability to recover previously known Lyαemitters, we conclude that Hi-selected galaxies associated with high-metallicity DLAs atz≈ 2 are dusty and therefore might feature low Lyαescape fractions. Our results indicate that complementary approaches—using Lyα, CO, Hα, and [Cii] 158μm emission—are necessary to identify the wide range of galaxy types associated withz≈ 2 DLAs.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    We present a sample of nine fast radio bursts (FRBs) from which we derive magnetic field strengths of the host galaxies represented by normal,z< 0.5 star-forming galaxies with stellar massesM*≈ 108–1010.5M. We find no correlation between the FRB rotation measure (RM) and redshift, which indicates that the RM values are due mostly to the FRB host contribution. This assertion is further supported by a significant positive correlation (Spearman test probabilityPS< 0.05) found between the RM and the estimated host dispersion measure (DMhost; with Spearman rank correlation coefficientrS= +0.75). For these nine galaxies, we estimate their magnetic field strengths projected along the sight line ∣B∣, finding a low median value of 0.5μG. This implies the magnetic fields of our sample of hosts are weaker than those characteristic of the solar neighborhood (≈6μG), but relatively consistent with a lower limit on the observed range of ≈2–10μG for star-forming disk galaxies, especially as we consider reversals in theB-field, and that we are only probing B. We compare to RMs from simulated galaxies of the Auriga project—magneto-hydrodynamic cosmological zoom simulations—and find that the simulations predict the observed values to within a 95% confidence interval. Upcoming FRB surveys will provide hundreds of new FRBs with high-precision localizations, RMs, and imaging follow-up to support further investigation into the magnetic fields of a diverse population ofz< 1 galaxies.

     
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  4. Abstract

    The repeating fast radio burst FRB 20190520B is an anomaly of the FRB population thanks to its high dispersion measure (DM = 1205 pc cm−3) despite its low redshift ofzfrb= 0.241. This excess has been attributed to a large host contribution of DMhost≈ 900 pc cm−3, far larger than any other known FRB. In this paper, we describe spectroscopic observations of the FRB 20190520B field obtained as part of the FLIMFLAM survey, which yielded 701 galaxy redshifts in the field. We find multiple foreground galaxy groups and clusters, for which we then estimated halo masses by comparing their richness with numerical simulations. We discover two separateMhalo> 1014Mgalaxy clusters atz= 0.1867 and 0.2170 that are directly intersected by the FRB sight line within their characteristic halo radiusr200. Subtracting off their estimated DM contributions, as well that of the diffuse intergalactic medium, we estimate a host contribution ofDMhost=430220+140or280170+140pccm3(observed frame), depending on whether we assume that the halo gas extends tor200or 2 ×r200. This significantly smaller DMhost—no longer the largest known value—is now consistent with Hαemission measures of the host galaxy without invoking unusually high gas temperatures. Combined with the observed FRB scattering timescale, we estimate the turbulent fluctuation and geometric amplification factor of the scattering layer to beF˜G4.511(pc2km)1/3, suggesting that most of the gas is close to the FRB host. This result illustrates the importance of incorporating foreground data for FRB analyses both for understanding the nature of FRBs and to realize their potential as a cosmological probe.

     
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  5. Ham, David ; Añel, Juan Antonio ; Kerkweg, Astrid ; Lo, Min-Hui ; Neale, Richard ; Sander, Rolf ; Ullrich, Paul (Ed.)
    Abstract. We have assembled 2 851 702 nearly cloud-free cutout images (sized 144 km × 144 km) of sea surface temperature (SST) data from the entire 2012–2020 Level-2 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) dataset to perform a quantitative comparison to the ocean model output from the MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm). Specifically, we evaluate outputs from the LLC4320 (LLC, latitude–longitude–polar cap) 148∘ global-ocean simulation for a 1-year period starting on 17 November 2011 but otherwise matched in geography and the day of the year to the VIIRS observations. In lieu of simple (e.g., mean, standard deviation) or complex (e.g., power spectrum) statistics, we analyze the cutouts of SST anomalies with an unsupervised probabilistic autoencoder (PAE) trained to learn the distribution of structures in SST anomaly (SSTa) on ∼ 10–80 km scales (i.e., submesoscale to mesoscale). A principal finding is that the LLC4320 simulation reproduces, over a large fraction of the ocean, the observed distribution of SSTa patterns well, both globally and regionally. Globally, the medians of the structure distributions match to within 2σ for 65 % of the ocean, despite a modest, latitude-dependent offset. Regionally, the model outputs reproduce mesoscale variations in SSTa patterns revealed by the PAE in the VIIRS data, including subtle features imprinted by variations in bathymetry. We also identify significant differences in the distribution of SSTa patterns in several regions: (1) in an equatorial band equatorward of 15∘; (2) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), especially in the eastern half of the Indian Ocean; and (3) in the vicinity of the point at which western boundary currents separate from the continental margin. It is clear that region 3 is a result of premature separation in the simulated western boundary currents. The model output in region 2, the southern Indian Ocean, tends to predict more structure than observed, perhaps arising from a misrepresentation of the mixed layer or of energy dissipation and stirring in the simulation. The differences in region 1, the equatorial band, are also likely due to model errors, perhaps arising from the shortness of the simulation or from the lack of high-frequency and/or wavenumber atmospheric forcing. Although we do not yet know the exact causes for these model–data SSTa differences, we expect that this type of comparison will help guide future developments of high-resolution global-ocean simulations. 
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  6. Abstract

    The Dragonfly galaxy (MRC 0152-209), the most infrared-luminous radio galaxy at redshiftz∼ 2, is a merger system containing a powerful radio source and large displacements of gas. We present kiloparsec-resolution data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array of carbon monoxide (6−5), dust, and synchrotron continuum, combined with Keck integral field spectroscopy. We find that the Dragonfly consists of two galaxies with rotating disks that are in the early phase of merging. The radio jet originates from the northern galaxy and brightens when it hits the disk of the southern galaxy. The Dragonfly galaxy therefore likely appears as a powerful radio galaxy because its flux is boosted into the regime of high-zradio galaxies by the jet–disk interaction. We also find a molecular outflow of (1100 ± 550)Myr−1associated with the radio host galaxy, but not with the radio hot spot or southern galaxy, which is the galaxy that hosts the bulk of the star formation. Gravitational effects of the merger drive a slower and longer-lived mass displacement at a rate of (170 ± 40)Myr−1, but this tidal debris contains at least as much molecular gas mass as the much faster outflow, namelyMH2= (3 ± 1) × 109(αCO/0.8)M. This suggests that both the active-galactic-nucleus-driven outflow and mass transfer due to tidal effects are important in the evolution of the Dragonfly system. The Keck data show Lyαemission spread across 100 kpc, and Civand Heiiemission across 35 kpc, confirming the presence of a metal-rich and extended circumgalactic medium previously detected in CO(1–0).

     
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  7. Abstract

    We use medium- and high-resolution spectroscopy of close pairs of quasars to analyze the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding 32 damped Lyαabsorption systems (DLAs). The primary quasar sightline in each pair probes an intervening DLA in the redshift range 1.6 <zabs< 3.5, such that the secondary sightline probes absorption from Lyαand a large suite of metal-line transitions (including Oi, Cii, Civ, Siii, and Siiv) in the DLA host galaxy’s CGM at transverse distances 24 kpc ≤R≤ 284 kpc. Analysis of Lyαin the CGM sightlines shows an anticorrelation betweenRand Hicolumn density (NHI) with 99.8% confidence, similar to that observed around luminous galaxies. The incidences of Ciiand SiiiwithN> 1013cm−2within 100 kpc of DLAs are larger by 2σthan those measured in the CGM of Lyman break galaxies (Cf(NCII) > 0.89 andCf(NSiII)=0.750.17+0.12). Metallicity constraints derived from ionic ratios for nine CGM systems with negligible ionization corrections andNHI> 1018.5cm−2show a significant degree of scatter (with metallicities/limits across the range2.06logZ/Z0.75), suggesting inhomogeneity in the metal distribution in these environments. Velocity widths of Civλ1548 and low-ionization metal species in the DLA versus CGM sightlines are strongly (>2σ) correlated, suggesting that they trace the potential well of the host halo overR≲ 300 kpc scales. At the same time, velocity centroids for Civλ1548 differ in DLA versus CGM sightlines by >100 km s−1for ∼50% of velocity components, but few components have velocities that would exceed the escape velocity assuming dark matter host halos of ≥1012M.

     
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  8. Abstract

    The FLIMFLAM survey is collecting spectroscopic data of field galaxies near fast radio burst (FRB) sight lines to constrain key parameters describing the distribution of matter in the Universe. In this work, we leverage the survey data to determine the source of the excess extragalactic dispersion measure (DM), compared to Macquart relation estimates of four FRBs: FRB20190714A, FRB20200906A, FRB20200430A, and FRB20210117A. By modeling the gas distribution around the foreground galaxy halos and galaxy groups of the sight lines, we estimate DMhalos, their contribution to the FRB DMs. The FRB20190714A sight line shows a clear excess of foreground halos which contribute roughly two-thirds of the observed excess DM, thus implying a sight line that is baryon dense. FRB20200906A shows a smaller but nonnegligible foreground halo contribution, and further analysis of the intergalactic medium is necessary to ascertain the true cosmic contribution to its DM. FRB20200430A and FRB20210117A show negligible foreground contributions, implying a large host galaxy excess and/or progenitor environment excess.

     
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  9. Abstract

    We present high-resolution 1.5–6 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical and infrared observations of the extremely active repeating fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 20201124A and its barred spiral host galaxy. We constrain the location and morphology of star formation in the host and search for a persistent radio source (PRS) coincident with FRB 20201124A. We resolve the morphology of the radio emission across all frequency bands and measure a star formation rate (SFR) ≈ 8.9Myr−1, approximately ≈2.5–6 times larger than optically inferred SFRs, demonstrating dust-obscured star formation throughout the host. Compared to a sample of all known FRB hosts with radio emission, the host of FRB 20201124A has the most significantly obscured star formation. While HST observations show the FRB to be offset from the bar or spiral arms, the radio emission extends to the FRB location. We propose that the FRB progenitor could have formed in situ (e.g., a magnetar born from a massive star explosion). It is still plausible, although less likely, that the progenitor of FRB 20201124A migrated from the central bar of the host. We further place a limit on the luminosity of a putative PRS at the FRB position ofL6.0GHz≲ 1.8 ×1027erg s−1Hz−1, among the deepest PRS luminosity limits to date. However, this limit is still broadly consistent with both magnetar nebulae and hypernebulae models assuming a constant energy injection rate of the magnetar and an age of ≳105yr in each model, respectively.

     
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  10. ABSTRACT

    FRB 20210912A is a fast radio burst (FRB), detected and localized to subarcsecond precision by the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder. No host galaxy has been identified for this burst despite the high precision of its localization and deep optical and infrared follow-up, to 5σ limits of R = 26.7 mag and Ks = 24.9 mag with the Very Large Telescope. The combination of precise radio localization and deep optical imaging has almost always resulted in the secure identification of a host galaxy, and this is the first case in which the line of sight is not obscured by the Galactic disc. The dispersion measure of this burst, DMFRB = 1233.696 ± 0.006 pc cm−3, allows for a large source redshift of z > 1 according to the Macquart relation. It could thus be that the host galaxy is consistent with the known population of FRB hosts, but is too distant to detect in our observations (z > 0.7 for a host like that of the first repeating FRB source, FRB 20121102A); that it is more nearby with a significant excess in DMhost, and thus dimmer than any known FRB host; or, least likely, that the FRB is truly hostless. We consider each possibility, making use of the population of known FRB hosts to frame each scenario. The fact of the missing host has ramifications for the FRB field: even with high-precision localization and deep follow-up, some FRB hosts may be difficult to detect, with more distant hosts being the less likely to be found. This has implications for FRB cosmology, in which high-redshift detections are valuable.

     
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