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  1. Supervised machine learning approaches have been increasingly used in accelerating electronic structure prediction as surrogates of first-principle computational methods, such as density functional theory (DFT). While numerous quantum chemistry datasets focus on chemical properties and atomic forces, the ability to achieve accurate and efficient prediction of the Hamiltonian matrix is highly desired, as it is the most important and fundamental physical quantity that determines the quantum states of physical systems and chemical properties. In this work, we generate a new Quantum Hamiltonian dataset, named as QH9, to provide precise Hamiltonian matrices for 2,399 molecular dynamics trajectories and 130,831 stable molecular geometries, based on the QM9 dataset. By designing benchmark tasks with various molecules, we show that current machine learning models have the capacity to predict Hamiltonian matrices for arbitrary molecules. Both the QH9 dataset and the baseline models are provided to the community through an open-source benchmark, which can be highly valuable for developing machine learning methods and accelerating molecular and materials design for scientific and technological applications. Our benchmark is publicly available at \url{}. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 14, 2024
  2. Thanks to the rapid advances in artificial intelligence, AI for science (AI4Science) has emerged as one of the new promising research directions for modern science and engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts to develop knowledge-driven Bayesian learning and experimental design methods for accelerating the discovery of novel functional materials as well as enhancing the understanding of composition-process-structure-property relationships. We specifically discuss the challenges and opportunities in integrating prior scientific knowledge and physics principles with AI and machine learning (ML) models for accelerating materials and knowledge discovery. The current state-of-the-art methods in knowledge-based prior construction, model fusion, uncertainty quantification, optimal experimental design, and symbolic regression are detailed in the review, along with several detailed case studies and results in materials discovery. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 10, 2024
  3. Andreas Krause, Emma Brunskill (Ed.)
    We consider the prediction of the Hamiltonian matrix, which finds use in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics. Efficiency and equivariance are two important, but conflicting factors. In this work, we propose a SE(3)-equivariant network, named QHNet, that achieves efficiency and equivariance. Our key advance lies at the innovative design of QHNet architecture, which not only obeys the underlying symmetries, but also enables the reduction of number of tensor products by 92%. In addition, QHNet prevents the exponential growth of channel dimension when more atom types are involved. We perform experiments on MD17 datasets, including four molecular systems. Experimental results show that our QHNet can achieve comparable performance to the state of the art methods at a significantly faster speed. Besides, our QHNet consumes 50% less memory due to its streamlined architecture. Our code is publicly available as part of the AIRS library ( 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 27, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 20, 2025
  5. Abstract

    Van der Waals (vdW) ferroelectrics have attracted significant attention for their potential in next-generation nano-electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) group-IV monochalcogenides have emerged as a promising candidate due to their strong room temperature in-plane polarization down to a monolayer limit. However, their polarization is strongly coupled with the lattice strain and stacking orders, which impact their electronic properties. Here, we utilize four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM) to simultaneously probe the in-plane strain and out-of-plane stacking in vdW SnSe. Specifically, we observe large lattice strain up to 4% with a gradient across ~50 nm to compensate lattice mismatch at domain walls, mitigating defects initiation. Additionally, we discover the unusual ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric domain walls stabilized by vdW force and may lead to anisotropic nonlinear optical responses. Our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of in-plane and out-of-plane structures affecting domain properties in vdW SnSe, laying the foundation for domain wall engineering in vdW ferroelectrics.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  6. Strong coupling between light and mechanical strain forms the foundation for next-generation optical micro- and nano-electromechanical systems. Such optomechanical responses in two-dimensional materials present novel types of functionalities arising from the weak van der Waals bond between atomic layers. Here, by using structure-sensitive megaelectronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction, we report the experimental observation of optically driven ultrafast in-plane strain in the layered group IV monochalcogenide germanium sulfide (GeS). Surprisingly, the photoinduced structural deformation exhibits strain amplitudes of order 0.1% with a 10 ps fast response time and a significant in-plane anisotropy between zigzag and armchair crystallographic directions. Rather than arising due to heating, experimental and theoretical investigations suggest deformation potentials caused by electronic density redistribution and converse piezoelectric effects generated by photoinduced electric fields are the dominant contributors to the observed dynamic anisotropic strains. Our observations define new avenues for ultrafast optomechanical control and strain engineering within functional devices. 
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