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  1. Abstract

    Both the core collapse of rotating massive stars, and the coalescence of neutron star (NS) binaries result in the formation of a hot, differentially rotating NS remnant. The timescales over which differential rotation is removed by internal angular-momentum transport processes (viscosity) have key implications for the remnant’s long-term stability and the NS equation of state (EOS). Guided by a nonrotating model of a cooling proto-NS, we estimate the dominant sources of viscosity using an externally imposed angular-velocity profile Ω(r). Although the magneto-rotational instability provides the dominant source of effective viscosity at large radii, convection and/or the Tayler–Spruit dynamo dominate in the core of merger remnants wheredΩ/dr≥ 0. Furthermore, the viscous timescale in the remnant core is sufficiently short that solid-body rotation will be enforced faster than matter is accreted from rotationally supported outer layers. Guided by these results, we develop a toy model for how the merger remnant core grows in mass and angular momentum due to accretion. We find that merger remnants with sufficiently massive and slowly rotating initial cores may collapse to black holes via envelope accretion, even when the total remnant mass is less than the usually considered threshold ≈1.2MTOVfor forming a stable solid-body rotating NSmore »remnant (whereMTOVis the maximum nonrotating NS mass supported by the EOS). This qualitatively new picture of the post-merger remnant evolution and stability criterion has important implications for the expected electromagnetic counterparts from binary NS mergers and for multimessenger constraints on the NS EOS.

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    Phenomenological models of cosmic ray (CR) transport in the Milky Way can reproduce a wide range of observations assuming that CRs scatter off of magnetic-field fluctuations with spectrum ∝ k−δ and δ ∼ [1.4, 1.67]. We study the extent to which such models can be reconciled with current microphysical theories of CR transport, specifically self-confinement due to the streaming instability and/or extrinsic turbulence due to a cascade of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast modes. We first review why it is that on their own neither theory is compatible with observations. We then highlight that CR transport is a strong function of local plasma conditions in the multiphase interstellar medium, and may be diffusive due to turbulence in some regions and streaming due to self-confinement in others. A multiphase combination of scattering mechanisms can in principle reproduce the main trends in the proton spectrum and the boron-to-carbon ratio. However, models with a combination of scattering by self-excited waves and fast-mode turbulence require significant fine-tuning due to fast-mode damping, unlike phenomenological models that assume undamped Kolmogorov turbulence. The assumption that fast modes follow a weak cascade is also not well justified theoretically, as the weak cascade is suppressed by wave steepening and weak-shock dissipation evenmore »in subsonic turbulence. These issues suggest that there may be a significant theoretical gap in our understanding of MHD turbulence. We discuss a few topics at the frontier of MHD turbulence theory that bear on this (possible) gap and that may be relevant for CR scattering.

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  3. Observations of the most luminous quasars at high redshifts (z > 6) have revealed that the largest supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at those epochs tend to be substantially overmassive relative to their host galaxies compared to the local relations, suggesting they experienced rapid early growth phases. We propose an assembly model for the SMBHs that end up in rare massive ∼ 1012 M⊙ host halos at z ∼ 6−7, applying a kinetic feedback prescription for BHs accreting above the Eddington rate, provided by radiation hydrodynamic simulations for the long-term evolution of the accretion-flow structure. The large inflow rates into these halos during their assembly enable the formation of > 109 M⊙ SMBHs by z ∼ 6, even starting from stellar-mass seeds at z ∼ 30, and even in the presence of outflows that reduce the BH feeding rate, especially at early times. This mechanism also naturally yields a high BH-to-galaxy mass ratio of > 0.01 before the SMBH mass reaches MBH > 109 M⊙ by z ∼ 6. These fast-growing SMBH progenitors are bright enough to be detected by upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope over a wide range of redshift (7 < z < 15), regardless ofmore »how they were seeded.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Using a combination of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations and ray tracing of synchrotron emission, we study the effect of modest (24°) misalignment between the black hole spin and plasma angular momentum, focusing on the variability of total flux, image centroids, and image sizes. We consider both millimeter and infrared (IR) observables motivated by Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), though our results apply more generally to optically thin flows. For most quantities, tilted accretion is more variable, primarily due to a significantly hotter and densercoronalregion well off the disk midplane. We find (1) a 150% increase in millimeter light-curve variability when adding tilt to the flow; (2) the tilted image centroid in the millimeter shifts on a scale of 3.7μas over 28 hr (5000 gravitational times) for some electron temperature models; (3) tilted disk image diameters in the millimeter can be 10% larger (52 versus 47μas) than those of aligned disks at certain viewing angles; (4) the tilted models produce significant IR flux, similar to that seen in Sgr A*, with comparable or even greater variability than observed; and (5) for some electron models, the tilted IR centroid moves by more than 50μas over several hours, in a similar fashion to themore »centroid motion detected by the GRAVITY interferometer.

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    We present the first simulations evolving resolved spectra of cosmic rays (CRs) from MeV–TeV energies (including electrons, positrons, (anti)protons, and heavier nuclei), in live kinetic-magnetohydrodynamics galaxy simulations with star formation and feedback. We utilize new numerical methods including terms often neglected in historical models, comparing Milky Way analogues with phenomenological scattering coefficients ν to Solar-neighbourhood [Local interstellar medium (LISM)] observations (spectra, B/C, e+/e−, $\mathrm{\bar{p}}/\mathrm{p}$, 10Be/9Be, ionization, and γ-rays). We show it is possible to reproduce observations with simple single-power-law injection and scattering coefficients (scaling with rigidity R), similar to previous (non-dynamical) calculations. We also find: (1) The circumgalactic medium in realistic galaxies necessarily imposes an $\sim 10\,$ kpc CR scattering halo, influencing the required ν(R). (2) Increasing the normalization of ν(R) re-normalizes CR secondary spectra but also changes primary spectral slopes, owing to source distribution and loss effects. (3) Diffusive/turbulent reacceleration is unimportant and generally sub-dominant to gyroresonant/streaming losses, which are sub-dominant to adiabatic/convective terms dominated by $\sim 0.1-1\,$ kpc turbulent/fountain motions. (4) CR spectra vary considerably across galaxies; certain features can arise from local structure rather than transport physics. (5) Systematic variation in CR ionization rates between LISM and molecular clouds (or Galactic position) arises naturally without invoking alternativemore »sources. (6) Abundances of CNO nuclei require most CR acceleration occurs around when reverse shocks form in SNe, not in OB wind bubbles or later Sedov–Taylor stages of SNe remnants.

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  6. We study the long-term evolution of the global structure of axisymmetric accretion flows onto a black hole (BH) at rates substantially higher than the Eddington value (Mdot,Edd)performing two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with and without radiative diffusion. In the high-accretion optically-thick limit, where the radiation energy is efficiently trapped within the inflow, the accretion flow becomes adiabatic and comprises of turbulent gas in the equatorial region and strong bipolar outflows. As a result, the mass inflow rate decreases toward the center as Mdot,in∝r_p with p∼0.5−0.7 and a small fraction of the inflowing gas feeds the nuclear BH. Thus, super-Eddington accretion is sustained only when a larger amount of gas is supplied from larger radii at >100−1000 Mdot, Edd. The global structure of the flow settles down to a quasi-steady state in millions of the orbital timescale at the BH event horizon, which is >10−100 times longer than that addressed in previous (magneto-)RHD simulation studies. Energy transport via radiative diffusion accelerates the outflow near the poles in the inner region but does not change the overall properties of the accretion flow compared to the cases without diffusion. Based on our simulation results, we provide a mechanical feedback model for super-Eddington accreting BHs. Thismore »can be applied as a sub-grid model in large-scale cosmological simulations that do not sufficiently resolve galactic nuclei, and to the formation of the heaviest gravitational-wave sources via accretion in dense environments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Abstract Extended, old, and round stellar halos appear to be ubiquitous around high-mass dwarf galaxies (10 8.5 < M ⋆ / M ⊙ < 10 9.6 ) in the observed universe. However, it is unlikely that these dwarfs have undergone a sufficient number of minor mergers to form stellar halos that are composed of predominantly accreted stars. Here, we demonstrate that FIRE-2 (Feedback in Realistic Environments) cosmological zoom-in simulations are capable of producing dwarf galaxies with realistic structures, including both a thick disk and round stellar halo. Crucially, these stellar halos are formed in situ, largely via the outward migration of disk stars. However, there also exists a large population of “nondisky” dwarfs in FIRE-2 that lack a well-defined disk/halo and do not resemble the observed dwarf population. These nondisky dwarfs tend to be either more gas-poor or to have burstier recent star formation histories than the disky dwarfs, suggesting that star formation feedback may be preventing disk formation. Both classes of dwarfs underscore the power of a galaxy’s intrinsic shape—which is a direct quantification of the distribution of the galaxy’s stellar content—to interrogate the feedback implementation in simulated galaxies.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023

    The physics of Cosmic ray (CR) transport remains a key uncertainty in assessing whether CRs can produce galaxy-scale outflows consistent with observations. In this paper, we elucidate the physics of CR-driven galactic winds for CR transport dominated by diffusion. A companion paper considers CR streaming. We use analytic estimates validated by time-dependent spherically symmetric simulations to derive expressions for the mass-loss rate, momentum flux, and speed of CR-driven galactic winds, suitable for cosmological-scale or semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. For CR diffusion coefficients κ ≳ r0ci, where r0 is the base radius of the wind and ci is the isothermal gas sound speed, the asymptotic wind energy flux is comparable to that supplied to CRs, and the outflow rapidly accelerates to supersonic speeds. By contrast, for κ ≲ r0ci, CR-driven winds accelerate more slowly and lose most of their energy to gravity, a CR analogue of photon-tired stellar winds. Given CR diffusion coefficients estimated using Fermi gamma-ray observations of pion decay, we predict mass-loss rates in CR-driven galactic winds of the order of the star formation rate for dwarf and disc galaxies. The dwarf galaxy mass-loss rates are small compared to the mass-loadings needed to reconcile the stellar andmore »dark matter halo mass functions. For nuclear starbursts (e.g. M82, Arp 220), CR diffusion and pion losses suppress the CR pressure in the galaxy and the strength of CR-driven winds. We discuss the implications of our results for interpreting observations of galactic winds and for the role of CRs in galaxy formation.

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    We use analytical calculations and time-dependent spherically symmetric simulations to study the properties of isothermal galactic winds driven by cosmic rays (CRs) streaming at the Alfvén velocity. The simulations produce time-dependent flows permeated by strong shocks; we identify a new linear instability of sound waves that sources these shocks. The shocks substantially modify the wind dynamics, invalidating previous steady state models: the CR pressure pc has a staircase-like structure with dpc/dr ≃ 0 in most of the volume, and the time-averaged CR energetics are in many cases better approximated by pc ∝ ρ1/2, rather than the canonical pc ∝ ρ2/3. Accounting for this change in CR energetics, we analytically derive new expressions for the mass-loss rate, momentum flux, wind speed, and wind kinetic power in galactic winds driven by CR streaming. We show that streaming CRs are ineffective at directly driving cold gas out of galaxies, though CR-driven winds in hotter ISM phases may entrain cool gas. For the same physical conditions, diffusive CR transport (Paper I) yields mass-loss rates that are a few-100 times larger than streaming transport, and asymptotic wind powers that are a factor of ≃4 larger. We discuss the implications of our results for galactic wind theory and observations; strongmore »shocks driven by CR-streaming-induced instabilities produce gas with a wide range of densities and temperatures, consistent with the multiphase nature of observed winds. We also quantify the applicability of the isothermal gas approximation for modelling streaming CRs and highlight the need for calculations with more realistic thermodynamics.

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  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023