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Creators/Authors contains: "Raja, Archana"

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  1. Abstract

    Lattice reconstruction and corresponding strain accumulation plays a key role in defining the electronic structure of two-dimensional moiré superlattices, including those of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Imaging of TMD moirés has so far provided a qualitative understanding of this relaxation process in terms of interlayer stacking energy, while models of the underlying deformation mechanisms have relied on simulations. Here, we use interferometric four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy to quantitatively map the mechanical deformations through which reconstruction occurs in small-angle twisted bilayer MoS2and WSe2/MoS2heterobilayers. We provide direct evidence that local rotations govern relaxation for twisted homobilayers, while local dilations are prominent in heterobilayers possessing a sufficiently large lattice mismatch. Encapsulation of the moiré layers in hBN further localizes and enhances these in-plane reconstruction pathways by suppressing out-of-plane corrugation. We also find that extrinsic uniaxial heterostrain, which introduces a lattice constant difference in twisted homobilayers, leads to accumulation and redistribution of reconstruction strain, demonstrating another route to modify the moiré potential.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Strong optical nonlinearities play a central role in realizing quantum photonic technologies. Exciton-polaritons, which result from the hybridization of material excitations and cavity photons, are an attractive candidate to realize such nonlinearities. While the interaction between ground state excitons generates a notable optical nonlinearity, the strength of such interactions is generally not sufficient to reach the regime of quantum nonlinear optics. Excited states, however, feature enhanced interactions and therefore hold promise for accessing the quantum domain of single-photon nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate the formation of exciton-polaritons using excited excitonic states in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) embedded in a microcavity. The realized excited-state polaritons exhibit an enhanced nonlinear response ∼ $${g}_{{pol}-{pol}}^{2s} \sim 46.4\pm 13.9\,\mu {eV}\mu {m}^{2}$$ g p o l − p o l 2 s ~ 46.4 ± 13.9 μ e V μ m 2 which is ∼4.6 times that for the ground-state exciton. The demonstration of enhanced nonlinear response from excited exciton-polaritons presents the potential of generating strong exciton-polariton interactions, a necessary building block for solid-state quantum photonic technologies.
  4. Abstract

    Individual atomic defects in 2D materials impact their macroscopic functionality. Correlating the interplay is challenging, however, intelligent hyperspectral scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) mapping provides a feasible solution to this technically difficult and time consuming problem. Here, dense spectroscopic volume is collected autonomously via Gaussian process regression, where convolutional neural networks are used in tandem for spectral identification. Acquired data enable defect segmentation, and a workflow is provided for machine-driven decision making during experimentation with capability for user customization. We provide a means towards autonomous experimentation for the benefit of both enhanced reproducibility and user-accessibility. Hyperspectral investigations on WS2sulfur vacancy sites are explored, which is combined with local density of states confirmation on the Au{111} herringbone reconstruction. Chalcogen vacancies, pristine WS2, Au face-centered cubic, and Au hexagonal close-packed regions are examined and detected by machine learning methods to demonstrate the potential of artificial intelligence for hyperspectral STS mapping.

  5. Abstract

    Despite extensive studies on size effects in ferroelectrics, how structures and properties evolve in antiferroelectrics with reduced dimensions still remains elusive. Given the enormous potential of utilizing antiferroelectrics for high‐energy‐density storage applications, understanding their size effects will provide key information for optimizing device performances at small scales. Here, the fundamental intrinsic size dependence of antiferroelectricity in lead‐free NaNbO3membranes is investigated. Via a wide range of experimental and theoretical approaches, an intriguing antiferroelectric‐to‐ferroelectric transition upon reducing membrane thickness is probed. This size effect leads to a ferroelectric single‐phase below 40 nm, as well as a mixed‐phase state with ferroelectric and antiferroelectric orders coexisting above this critical thickness. Furthermore, it is shown that the antiferroelectric and ferroelectric orders are electrically switchable. First‐principle calculations further reveal that the observed transition is driven by the structural distortion arising from the membrane surface. This work provides direct experimental evidence for intrinsic size‐driven scaling in antiferroelectrics and demonstrates enormous potential of utilizing size effects to drive emergent properties in environmentally benign lead‐free oxides with the membrane platform.