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  1. Abstract

    We demonstrate how to quantify the frequency-domain amplitude and phase accuracy of waveform models,δAandδφ, in a form that could be marginalized over in gravitational-wave inference using techniques currently applied for quantifying calibration uncertainty. For concreteness, waveform uncertainties affecting neutron-star inspiral measurements are considered, and post-hoc error estimates from a variety of waveform models are made by comparing time-domain and frequency-domain analytic models with multiple-resolution numerical simulations. These waveform uncertainty estimates can be compared to GW170817 calibration envelopes or to Advanced LIGO and Virgo calibration goals. Signal-specific calibration and waveform uncertainties are compared to statistical fluctuations in gravitational-wave observatories, giving frequency-dependent modeling requirements for detectors such as Advanced LIGO Plus, Cosmic Explorer, or Einstein Telescope. Finally, the distribution of waveform error for the GW170817 posterior is computed from tidal models and compared to the constraints onδφorδAfrom GWTC-1 by Edelmanet al.In general,δφandδAcan also be interpreted in terms of unmodeled astrophysical energy transfer within or from the source system.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The discovery of two neutron star–black hole coalescences by LIGO and Virgo brings the total number of likely neutron stars observed in gravitational waves to six. We perform the first inference of the mass distribution of this extragalactic population of neutron stars. In contrast to the bimodal Galactic population detected primarily as radio pulsars, the masses of neutron stars in gravitational-wave binaries are thus far consistent with a uniform distribution, with a greater prevalence of high-mass neutron stars. The maximum mass in the gravitational-wave population agrees with that inferred from the neutron stars in our Galaxy and with expectations from dense matter.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Ground-based gravitational-wave detectors like Cosmic Explorer (CE) can be tuned to improve their sensitivity at high or low frequencies by tuning the response of the signal extraction cavity. Enhanced sensitivity above 2 kHz enables measurements of the post-merger gravitational-wave spectrum from binary neutron star mergers, which depends critically on the unknown equation of state of hot, ultra-dense matter. Improved sensitivity below 500 Hz favors precision tests of extreme gravity with black hole ringdown signals and improves the detection prospects while facilitating an improved measurement of source properties for compact binary inspirals at cosmological distances. At intermediate frequencies, a more sensitive detector can better measure the tidal properties of neutron stars. We present and characterize the performance of tuned CE configurations that are designed to optimize detections across different astrophysical source populations. These tuning options give CE the flexibility to target a diverse set of science goals with the same detector infrastructure. We find that a 40 km CE detector outperforms a 20 km in all key science goals other than access to post-merger physics. This suggests that CE should include at least one 40 km facility.

     
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  4. This white paper describes the research and development needed over the next decade to realize "Cosmic Explorer," the U.S. node of a future third-generation detector network that will be capable of observing and characterizing compact gravitational-wave sources to cosmological redshifts. 
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