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  1. Data redundancy is ubiquitous in the inputs and intermediate results of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) . It offers many significant opportunities for improving DNN performance and efficiency and has been explored in a large body of work. These studies have scattered in many venues across several years. The targets they focus on range from images to videos and texts, and the techniques they use to detect and exploit data redundancy also vary in many aspects. There is not yet a systematic examination and summary of the many efforts, making it difficult for researchers to get a comprehensive view of the prior work, the state of the art, differences and shared principles, and the areas and directions yet to explore. This article tries to fill the void. It surveys hundreds of recent papers on the topic, introduces a novel taxonomy to put the various techniques into a single categorization framework, offers a comprehensive description of the main methods used for exploiting data redundancy in improving multiple kinds of DNNs on data, and points out a set of research opportunities for future exploration. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
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  5. With the ever-increasing popularity of edge devices, it is necessary to implement real-time segmentation on the edge for autonomous driving and many other applications. Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown considerably stronger results for many vision tasks. However, ViTs with the fullattention mechanism usually consume a large number of computational resources, leading to difficulties for realtime inference on edge devices. In this paper, we aim to derive ViTs with fewer computations and fast inference speed to facilitate the dense prediction of semantic segmentation on edge devices. To achieve this, we propose a pruning parameterization method to formulate the pruning problem of semantic segmentation. Then we adopt a bi-level optimization method to solve this problem with the help of implicit gradients. Our experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve 38.9 mIoU on ADE20K val with a speed of 56.5 FPS on Samsung S21, which is the highest mIoU under the same computation constraint with real-time inference. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. Vector search has drawn a rapid increase of interest in the research community due to its application in novel AI applications. Maximizing its performance is essential for many tasks but remains preliminary understood. In this work, we investigate the root causes of the scalability bottleneck of using intra-query parallelism to speedup the state-of-the-art graph-based vector search systems on multi-core architectures. Our in-depth analysis reveals several scalability challenges from both system and algorithm perspectives. Based on the insights, we propose iQAN, a parallel search algorithm with a set of optimizations that boost convergence, avoid redundant computations, and mitigate synchronization overhead. Our evaluation results on a wide range of real-world datasets show that iQAN achieves up to 37.7× and 76.6× lower latency than state-of-the-art sequential baselines on datasets ranging from a million to a hundred million datasets. We also show that iQAN achieves outstanding scalability as the graph size or the accuracy target increases, allowing it to outperform the state-of-the-art baseline on two billion-scale datasets by up to 16.0× with up to 64 cores. 
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  7. Since Rendle and Krichene argued that commonly used sampling-based evaluation metrics are “inconsistent” with respect to the global metrics (even in expectation), there have been a few studies on the sampling-based recommender system evaluation. Existing methods try either mapping the sampling-based metrics to their global counterparts or more generally, learning the empirical rank distribution to estimate the top-K metrics. However, despite existing efforts, there is still a lack of rigorous theoretical understanding of the proposed metric estimators, and the basic item sampling also suffers from the “blind spot” issue, i.e., estimation accuracy to recover the top-K metrics when K is small can still be rather substantial. In this paper, we provide an in-depth investigation into these problems and make two innovative contributions. First, we propose a new item-sampling estimator that explicitly optimizes the error with respect to the ground truth, and theoretically highlights its subtle difference against prior work. Second, we propose a new adaptive sampling method that aims to deal with the “blind spot” problem and also demonstrate the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm can be generalized for such a setting. Our experimental results confirm our statistical analysis and the superiority of the proposed works. This study helps lay the theoretical foundation for adopting item sampling metrics for recommendation evaluation and provides strong evidence for making item sampling a powerful and reliable tool for recommendation evaluation. 
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  8. As more apps embrace AI, it is becoming increasingly common that multiple Deep Neural Networks (DNN)-powered apps may run at the same time on a mobile device. This paper explores scheduling in such multi-instance DNN scenarios, on general open mobile systems (e.g., common smartphones and tablets). Unlike closed systems (e.g., autonomous driving systems) where the set of co-run apps is known beforehand, the user of an open mobile system may install or uninstall arbitrary apps at any time, and a centralized solution is subject to adoption barriers. This work proposes the first-known decentralized application-level scheduling mechanism to address the problem. By leveraging the adaptivity of Deep Reinforcement Learning, the solution is shown to make the scheduling of co-run apps converge to a Nash equilibrium point, yielding a good balance of gains among the apps. The solution moreover automatically adapts to the running environment and the underlying OS and hardware. Experiments show that the solution consistently produces significant speedups and energy savings across DNN workloads, hardware configurations, and running scenarios. 
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  9. There have been many recent attempts to extend the successes of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) from 2-dimensional (2D) image classification to 3-dimensional (3D) video recognition by exploring 3D CNNs. Considering the emerging growth of mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) market, it is essential to investigate the deployment of 3D CNNs on edge devices. Previous works have implemented standard 3D CNNs (C3D) on hardware platforms, however, they have not exploited model compression for acceleration of inference. This work proposes a hardware-aware pruning approach that can fully adapt to the loop tiling technique of FPGA design and is applied onto a novel 3D network called R(2+1)D. Leveraging the powerful ADMM, the proposed pruning method achieves simultaneous high accuracy and significant acceleration of computation on FPGA. With layer-wise pruning rates up to 10× and negligible accuracy loss, the pruned model is implemented on a Xilinx ZCU102 FPGA board, where the pruned model achieves 2.6× speedup compared with the unpruned version, and 2.3× speedup and 2.3× power efficiency improvement compared with state-of-the-art FPGA implementation of C3D. 
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