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  1. Abstract

    Scalable programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs) can potentially transform the current state of classical and quantum optical information processing. However, traditional means of programming, including thermo-optic, free carrier dispersion, and Pockels effect result in either large device footprints or high static energy consumptions, significantly limiting their scalability. While chalcogenide-based non-volatile phase-change materials (PCMs) could mitigate these problems thanks to their strong index modulation and zero static power consumption, they often suffer from large absorptive loss, low cyclability, and lack of multilevel operation. Here, we report a wide-bandgap PCM antimony sulfide (Sb2S3)-clad silicon photonic platform simultaneously achieving low loss (<1.0 dB), high extinction ratio (>10 dB), high cyclability (>1600 switching events), and 5-bit operation. These Sb2S3-based devices are programmed via on-chip silicon PIN diode heaters within sub-ms timescale, with a programming energy density of$$\sim 10\,{fJ}/n{m}^{3}$$~10fJ/nm3. Remarkably, Sb2S3is programmed into fine intermediate states by applying multiple identical pulses, providing controllable multilevel operations. Through dynamic pulse control, we achieve 5-bit (32 levels) operations, rendering 0.50 ± 0.16 dB per step. Using this multilevel behavior, we further trim random phase error in a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Increasing the space-bandwidth product of spatial light modulators incurs severe issues in terms of power consumption, mutual crosstalk, and control signal wiring. In this opinion article, we propose a novel system to overcome these challenges by marrying energy-efficient modulators in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and a meta-optical beam aggregator. This hybrid approach can significantly improve the space-bandwidth product, theoretically up to 1013Hz · pixel, which is several orders of magnitude higher than the state-of-the-art.

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  3. We report a hybrid phase-change mateial Sb2S3-silicon photonic tunable directional coupler, which exhibits low insertion loss (< 1.0 dB), large extinction ratio (> 10 dB), high endurance (> 1,600 switching events), and 32 operation levels.

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  6. Prototyping of van der Waals materials on dense nanophotonic devices requires high-precision monolayer discrimination to avoid bulk material contamination. We use the glass transition temperature of polycarbonate, used in the standard dry transfer process, to draw an in situ point for the precise pickup of two-dimensional materials. We transfer transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers onto a large-area silicon nitride spiral waveguide and silicon nitride ring resonators to demonstrate the high-precision contamination-free nature of the modified dry transfer method. Our improved local transfer technique is a necessary step for the deterministic integration of high-quality van der Waals materials onto nanocavities for the exploration of few-photon nonlinear optics on a high-throughput, nanofabrication-compatible platform.

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  8. Abstract

    A key obstacle for all quantum information science and engineering platforms is their lack of scalability. The discovery of emergent quantum phenomena and their applications in active photonic quantum technologies have been dominated by work with single atoms, self‐assembled quantum dots, or single solid‐state defects. Unfortunately, scaling these systems to many quantum nodes remains a significant challenge. Solution‐processed quantum materials are uniquely positioned to address this challenge, but the quantum properties of these materials have remained generally inferior to those of solid‐state emitters or atoms. Additionally, systematic integration of solution‐processed materials with dielectric nanophotonic structures has been rare compared to other solid‐state systems. Recent progress in synthesis processes and nanophotonic engineering, however, has demonstrated promising results, including long coherence times of emitted single photons and deterministic integration of emitters with dielectric nano‐cavities. In this review article, these recent experiments using solution‐processed quantum materials and dielectric nanophotonic structures are discussed. The progress in non‐classical light state generation, exciton‐polaritonics for quantum simulation, and spin‐physics in these materials is discussed and an outlook for this emerging research field is provided.

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