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Creators/Authors contains: "Shen, Xuejian"

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  1. ABSTRACT

    We perform cosmological zoom-in simulations of 19 relaxed cluster-mass haloes with the inclusion of adiabatic gas in the cold dark matter (CDM) and self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models. These clusters are selected as dynamically relaxed clusters from a parent simulation with $M_{\rm 200} \simeq (1\!-\!3)\times 10^{15}{\, \rm M_\odot }$. Both the dark matter and the intracluster gas distributions in SIDM appear more spherical than their CDM counterparts. Mock X-ray images are generated based on the simulations and are compared to the real X-ray images of 84 relaxed clusters selected from the Chandra and ROSAT archives. We perform ellipse fitting for the isophotes of mock and real X-ray images and obtain the ellipticities at cluster-centric radii of $r\simeq 0.1\!-\!0.2R_{\rm 200}$. The X-ray isophotes in SIDM models with increasing cross-sections are rounder than their CDM counterparts, which manifests as a systematic shift in the distribution function of ellipticities. Unexpectedly, the X-ray morphology of the observed non-cool-core clusters agrees better with SIDM models with cross-section $(\sigma /m)= 0.5\!-\!1\, {\rm cm}^2\, {\rm g}^{-1}$ than CDM and SIDM with $(\sigma /m)=0.1\, {\rm cm}^2\, {\rm g}^{-1}$. Our statistical analysis indicates that the latter two models are disfavoured at the $68{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ confidence level (as conservativemore »estimates). This conclusion is not altered by shifting the radial range of measurements or applying a temperature selection criterion. However, the primary uncertainty originates from the lack of baryonic physics in the adiabatic model, such as cooling, star formation and feedback effects, which still have the potential to reconcile CDM simulations with observations.

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  2. ABSTRACT Line intensity mapping (LIM) is rapidly emerging as a powerful technique to study galaxy formation and cosmology in the high-redshift Universe. We present LIM estimates of select spectral lines originating from the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies and 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen gas in the Universe using the large volume, high resolution thesan reionization simulations. A combination of subresolution photoionization modelling for H ii regions and Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations is employed to estimate the dust-attenuated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high-redshift galaxies (z ≳ 5.5). We show that the derived photometric properties such as the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function and the UV continuum slopes match observationally inferred values, demonstrating the accuracy of the SED modelling. We provide fits to the luminosity–star formation rate relation (L–SFR) for the brightest emission lines and find that important differences exist between the derived scaling relations and the widely used low-z ones because the ISM of reionization era galaxies is generally less metal enriched than in their low-redshift counterparts. We use these relations to construct line intensity maps of nebular emission lines and cross-correlate with the 21 cm emission. Interestingly, the wavenumber at which the correlation switches sign (ktransition) depends heavily on themore »reionization model and to a lesser extent on the targeted emission line, which is consistent with the picture that ktransition probes the typical sizes of ionized regions. The derived scaling relations and intensity maps represent a timely state-of-the-art framework for forecasting and interpreting results from current and upcoming LIM experiments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 28, 2023
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    ABSTRACT We present the first set of cosmological baryonic zoom-in simulations of galaxies including dissipative self-interacting dark matter (dSIDM). These simulations utilize the Feedback In Realistic Environments galaxy formation physics, but allow the dark matter to have dissipative self-interactions analogous to standard model forces, parametrized by the self-interaction cross-section per unit mass, (σ/m), and the dimensionless degree of dissipation, 0 < fdiss < 1. We survey this parameter space, including constant and velocity-dependent cross-sections, and focus on structural and kinematic properties of dwarf galaxies with $M_{\rm halo} \sim 10^{10-11}{\, \rm M_\odot }$ and $M_{\ast } \sim 10^{5-8}{\, \rm M_\odot }$. Central density profiles (parametrized as ρ ∝ rα) of simulated dwarfs become cuspy when $(\sigma /m)_{\rm eff} \gtrsim 0.1\, {\rm cm^{2}\, g^{-1}}$ (and fdiss = 0.5 as fiducial). The power-law slopes asymptote to α ≈ −1.5 in low-mass dwarfs independent of cross-section, which arises from a dark matter ‘cooling flow’. Through comparisons with dark matter only simulations, we find the profile in this regime is insensitive to the inclusion of baryons. However, when $(\sigma /m)_{\rm eff} \ll 0.1\, {\rm cm^{2}\, g^{-1}}$, baryonic effects can produce cored density profiles comparable to non-dissipative cold dark matter (CDM) runs but at smaller radii. Simulated galaxies withmore »$(\sigma /m) \gtrsim 10\, {\rm cm^{2}\, g^{-1}}$ and the fiducial fdiss develop significant coherent rotation of dark matter, accompanied by halo deformation, but this is unlike the well-defined thin ‘dark discs’ often attributed to baryon-like dSIDM. The density profiles in this high cross-section model exhibit lower normalizations given the onset of halo deformation. For our surveyed dSIDM parameters, halo masses and galaxy stellar masses do not show appreciable difference from CDM, but dark matter kinematics and halo concentrations/shapes can differ.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We present predictions for high redshift (z = 2−10) galaxy populations based on the IllustrisTNG simulation suite and a full Monte Carlo dust radiative transfer post-processing. Specifically, we discuss the H α and H β + $[\rm O \,{\small III}]$ luminosity functions up to z = 8. The predicted H β + $[\rm O \,{\small III}]$ luminosity functions are consistent with present observations at z ≲ 3 with ${\lesssim} 0.1\, {\rm dex}$ differences in luminosities. However, the predicted H α luminosity function is ${\sim }0.3\, {\rm dex}$ dimmer than the observed one at z ≃ 2. Furthermore, we explore continuum spectral indices, the Balmer break at 4000 Å; (D4000) and the UV continuum slope β. The median D4000 versus specific star formation rate relation predicted at z = 2 is in agreement with the local calibration despite a different distribution pattern of galaxies in this plane. In addition, we reproduce the observed AUV versus β relation and explore its dependence on galaxy stellar mass, providing an explanation for the observed complexity of this relation. We also find a deficiency in heavily attenuated, UV red galaxies in the simulations. Finally, we provide predictions for the dust attenuation curves of galaxies at z = 2−6 and investigate their dependence on galaxy colours andmore »stellar masses. The attenuation curves are steeper in galaxies at higher redshifts, with bluer colours, or with lower stellar masses. We attribute these predicted trends to dust geometry. Overall, our results are consistent with present observations of high-redshift galaxies. Future James Webb Space Telecope observations will further test these predictions.« less
  5. ABSTRACT The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) promises to revolutionize our understanding of the early Universe, and contrasting its upcoming observations with predictions of the Λ cold dark matter model requires detailed theoretical forecasts. Here, we exploit the large dynamic range of the IllustrisTNG simulation suite, TNG50, TNG100, and TNG300, to derive multiband galaxy luminosity functions from z = 2 to z = 10. We put particular emphasis on the exploration of different dust attenuation models to determine galaxy luminosity functions for the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), and apparent wide NIRCam bands. Our most detailed dust model is based on continuum Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations employing observationally calibrated dust properties. This calibration results in constraints on the redshift evolution of the dust attenuation normalization and dust-to-metal ratios yielding a stronger redshift evolution of the attenuation normalization compared to most previous theoretical studies. Overall we find good agreement between the rest-frame UV luminosity functions and observational data for all redshifts, also beyond the regimes used for the dust model calibrations. Furthermore, we also recover the observed high-redshift (z = 4–6) UV luminosity versus stellar mass relation, the H α versus star formation rate relation, and the H α luminosity function at z = 2. The bright endmore »(MUV > −19.5) cumulative galaxy number densities are consistent with observational data. For the F200W NIRCam band, we predict that JWST will detect ∼80 (∼200) galaxies with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 (5) within the NIRCam field of view, $2.2\times 2.2 \, {\rm arcmin}^{2}$, for a total exposure time of $10^5\, {\rm s}$ in the redshift range z = 8 ± 0.5. These numbers drop to ∼10 (∼40) for an exposure time of $10^4\, {\rm s}$.« less
  6. ABSTRACT In this paper, we provide updated constraints on the bolometric quasar luminosity function (QLF) from z = 0 to z = 7. The constraints are based on an observational compilation that includes observations in the rest-frame IR, B band, UV, soft, and hard X-ray in past decades. Our method follows Hopkins et al. with an updated quasar SED model and bolometric and extinction corrections. The new best-fitting bolometric quasar luminosity function behaves qualitatively different from the old Hopkins model at high redshift. Compared with the old model, the number density normalization decreases towards higher redshift and the bright-end slope is steeper at z ≳ 2. Due to the paucity of measurements at the faint end, the faint end slope at z ≳ 5 is quite uncertain. We present two models, one featuring a progressively steeper faint-end slope at higher redshift and the other featuring a shallow faint-end slope at z ≳ 5. Further multiband observations of the faint-end QLF are needed to distinguish between these models. The evolutionary pattern of the bolometric QLF can be interpreted as an early phase likely dominated by the hierarchical assembly of structures and a late phase likely dominated by the quenching of galaxies. We explore the implications of thismore »model on the ionizing photon production by quasars, the CXB spectrum, the SMBH mass density, and mass functions. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate contributed by quasars is subdominant during the epoch of reionization and only becomes important at z ≲ 3. The predicted CXB spectrum, cosmic SMBH mass density, and SMBH mass function are generally consistent with existing observations.« less
  7. ABSTRACT

    We post-process galaxies in the IllustrisTNG simulations with skirt radiative transfer calculations to make predictions for the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) and far-infrared (FIR) properties of galaxies at z ≥ 4. The rest-frame K- and z-band galaxy luminosity functions from TNG are overall consistent with observations, despite ${\sim}0.5\, \mathrm{dex}$ underprediction at z = 4 for MK ≲ −25 and Mz ≲ −24. Predictions for the JWST MIRI observed galaxy luminosity functions and number counts are given. Based on theoretical estimations, we show that the next-generation survey conducted by JWST can detect 500 (30) galaxies in F1000W in a survey area of $500\, {\rm arcmin}^{2}$ at z = 6 (z = 8). As opposed to the consistency in the UV, optical, and NIR, we find that TNG, combined with our dust modelling choices, significantly underpredicts the abundance of most dust-obscured and thus most luminous FIR galaxies. As a result, the obscured cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) and the SFRD contributed by optical/NIR dark objects are underpredicted. The discrepancies discovered here could provide new constraints on the sub-grid feedback models, or the dust contents, of simulations. Meanwhile, although the TNG predicted dust temperature and its relations with IR luminosity and redshiftmore »are qualitatively consistent with observations, the peak dust temperature of z ≥ 6 galaxies are overestimated by about $20\, {\rm K}$. This could be related to the limited mass resolution of our simulations to fully resolve the porosity of the interstellar medium (or specifically its dust content) at these redshifts.

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  8. ABSTRACT Bose–Einstein condensate dark matter (BECDM, also known as fuzzy dark matter) is motivated by fundamental physics and has recently received significant attention as a serious alternative to the established cold dark matter (CDM) model. We perform cosmological simulations of BECDM gravitationally coupled to baryons and investigate structure formation at high redshifts (z ≳ 5) for a boson mass m = 2.5 × 10−22 eV, exploring the dynamical effects of its wavelike nature on the cosmic web and the formation of first galaxies. Our BECDM simulations are directly compared to CDM as well as to simulations where the dynamical quantum potential is ignored and only the initial suppression of the power spectrum is considered – a warm dark matter-like (‘WDM’) model often used as a proxy for BECDM. Our simulations confirm that ‘WDM’ is a good approximation to BECDM on large cosmological scales even in the presence of the baryonic feedback. Similarities also exist on small scales, with primordial star formation happening both in isolated haloes and continuously along cosmic filaments; the latter effect is not present in CDM. Global star formation and metal enrichment in these first galaxies are delayed in BECDM/‘WDM’ compared to the CDM case: in BECDM/‘WDM’ first starsmore »form at z ∼ 13/13.5, while in CDM star formation starts at z ∼ 35. The signature of BECDM interference, not present in ‘WDM’, is seen in the evolved dark matter power spectrum: although the small-scale structure is initially suppressed, power on kpc scales is added at lower redshifts. Our simulations lay the groundwork for realistic simulations of galaxy formation in BECDM.« less
  9. ABSTRACT We study the evolutionary trend of the total density profile of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in IllustrisTNG. To this end, we trace ETGs from z = 0 to 4 and measure the power-law slope γ′ of the total density profile for their main progenitors. We find that their slopes γ′ steepen on average during z ∼ 4–2, then becoming shallower until z = 1, after which they remain almost constant, aside from a residual trend of becoming shallower towards z = 0. We also compare to a statistical sample of ETGs at different redshifts, selected based on their luminosity profiles and stellar masses. Due to different selection effects, the average slopes of the statistical samples follow a modified evolutionary trend. They monotonically decrease since z = 3, and after z ≈ 1, they remain nearly invariant with a mild increase towards z = 0. These evolutionary trends are mass dependent for both samples, with low-mass galaxies having in general steeper slopes than their more massive counterparts. Galaxies that transitioned to ETGs more recently have steeper mean slopes as they tend to be smaller and more compact at any given redshift. By analysing the impact of mergers and AGN feedback on the progenitors’ evolution, we conjecture a multiphase path leading tomore »isothermality in ETGs: dissipation associated with rapid wet mergers tends to steepen γ′ from z = 4 to 2, whereas subsequent AGN feedback (especially in the kinetic mode) makes γ′ shallower again from z = 2 to 1. Afterwards, passive evolution from z = 1 to 0, mainly through gas-poor mergers, mildly decreases γ′ and maintains the overall mass distribution close to isothermal.« less