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Creators/Authors contains: "Smyth, Padhraic"

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  1. Abstract

    AI assistance is readily available to humans in a variety of decision-making applications. In order to fully understand the efficacy of such joint decision-making, it is important to first understand the human’s reliance on AI. However, there is a disconnect between how joint decision-making is studied and how it is practiced in the real world. More often than not, researchers ask humans to provide independent decisions before they are shown AI assistance. This is done to make explicit the influence of AI assistance on the human’s decision. We develop a cognitive model that allows us to infer thelatentreliance strategy of humans on AI assistance without asking the human to make an independent decision. We validate the model’s predictions through two behavioral experiments. The first experiment follows aconcurrentparadigm where humans are shown AI assistance alongside the decision problem. The second experiment follows asequentialparadigm where humans provide an independent judgment on a decision problem before AI assistance is made available. The model’s predicted reliance strategies closely track the strategies employed by humans in the two experimental paradigms. Our model provides a principled way to infer reliance on AI-assistance and may be used to expand the scope of investigation on human-AI collaboration.

  2. Abstract Changing wildfire regimes in the western US and other fire-prone regions pose considerable risks to human health and ecosystem function. However, our understanding of wildfire behavior is still limited by a lack of data products that systematically quantify fire spread, behavior and impacts. Here we develop a novel object-based system for tracking the progression of individual fires using 375 m Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire detections. At each half-daily time step, fire pixels are clustered according to their spatial proximity, and are either appended to an existing active fire object or are assigned to a new object. This automatic system allows us to update the attributes of each fire event, delineate the fire perimeter, and identify the active fire front shortly after satellite data acquisition. Using this system, we mapped the history of California fires during 2012–2020. Our approach and data stream may be useful for calibration and evaluation of fire spread models, estimation of near-real-time wildfire emissions, and as means for prescribing initial conditions in fire forecast models.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Despite recent advances in algorithmic fairness, methodologies for achieving fairness with generalized linear models (GLMs) have yet to be explored in general, despite GLMs being widely used in practice. In this paper we introduce two fairness criteria for GLMs based on equalizing expected outcomes or log-likelihoods. We prove that for GLMs both criteria can be achieved via a convex penalty term based solely on the linear components of the GLM, thus permitting efficient optimization. We also derive theoretical properties for the resulting fair GLM estimator. To empirically demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed fair GLM, we compare it with other well-known fair prediction methods on an extensive set of benchmark datasets for binary classification and regression. In addition, we demonstrate that the fair GLM can generate fair predictions for a range of response variables, other than binary and continuous outcomes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning models are being increasingly deployed in real-world applications. In many of these applications, there is strong motivation to develop hybrid systems in which humans and AI algorithms can work together, leveraging their complementary strengths and weaknesses. We develop a Bayesian framework for combining the predictions and different types of confidence scores from humans and machines. The framework allows us to investigate the factors that influence complementarity, where a hybrid combination of human and machine predictions leads to better performance than combinations of human or machine predictions alone. We apply this framework to a large-scale dataset where humans and a variety of convolutional neural networks perform the same challenging image classification task. We show empirically and theoretically that complementarity can be achieved even if the human and machine classifiers perform at different accuracy levels as long as these accuracy differences fall within a bound determined by the latent correlation between human and machine classifier confidence scores. In addition, we demonstrate that hybrid human–machine performance can be improved by differentiating between the errors that humans and machine classifiers make across different class labels. Finally, our results show that eliciting and including human confidence ratings improve hybridmore »performance in the Bayesian combination model. Our approach is applicable to a wide variety of classification problems involving human and machine algorithms.« less
  5. An increasingly common use case for machine learning models is augmenting the abilities of human decision makers. For classification tasks where neither the human nor model are perfectly accurate, a key step in obtaining high performance is combining their individual predictions in a manner that leverages their relative strengths. In this work, we develop a set of algorithms that combine the probabilistic output of a model with the class-level output of a human. We show theoretically that the accuracy of our combination model is driven not only by the individual human and model accuracies, but also by the model's confidence. Empirical results on image classification with CIFAR-10 and a subset of ImageNet demonstrate that such human-model combinations consistently have higher accuracies than the model or human alone, and that the parameters of the combination method can be estimated effectively with as few as ten labeled datapoints.
  6. We consider the problem of online learning in the presence of distribution shifts that occur at an unknown rate and of unknown intensity. We derive a new Bayesian online inference approach to simultaneously infer these distribution shifts and adapt the model to the detected changes by integrating ideas from change point detection, switching dynamical systems, and Bayesian online learning. Using a binary ‘change variable,’ we construct an informative prior such that--if a change is detected--the model partially erases the information of past model updates by tempering to facilitate adaptation to the new data distribution. Furthermore, the approach uses beam search to track multiple change-point hypotheses and selects the most probable one in hindsight. Our proposed method is model-agnostic, applicable in both supervised and unsupervised learning settings, suitable for an environment of concept drifts or covariate drifts, and yields improvements over state-of-the-art Bayesian online learning approaches.
  7. Given the complexity of data science projects and related demand for human expertise, automation has the potential to transform the data science process.
  8. Continuous-time event data are common in applications such as individual behavior data, financial transactions, and medical health records. Modeling such data can be very challenging, in particular for applications with many different types of events, since it requires a model to predict the event types as well as the time of occurrence. Recurrent neural networks that parameterize time-varying intensity functions are the current state-of-the-art for predictive modeling with such data. These models typically assume that all event sequences come from the same data distribution. However, in many applications event sequences are generated by different sources, or users, and their characteristics can be very different. In this paper, we extend the broad class of neural marked point process models to mixtures of latent embeddings, where each mixture component models the characteristic traits of a given user. Our approach relies on augmenting these models with a latent variable that encodes user characteristics, represented by a mixture model over user behavior that is trained via amortized variational inference. We evaluate our methods on four large real-world datasets and demonstrate systematic improvements from our approach over existing work for a variety of predictive metrics such as log-likelihood, next event ranking, and source-of-sequence identification.
  9. Abstract Understanding the physical drivers of seasonal hydroclimatic variability and improving predictive skill remains a challenge with important socioeconomic and environmental implications for many regions around the world. Physics-based deterministic models show limited ability to predict precipitation as the lead time increases, due to imperfect representation of physical processes and incomplete knowledge of initial conditions. Similarly, statistical methods drawing upon established climate teleconnections have low prediction skill due to the complex nature of the climate system. Recently, promising data-driven approaches have been proposed, but they often suffer from overparameterization and overfitting due to the short observational record, and they often do not account for spatiotemporal dependencies among covariates (i.e., predictors such as sea surface temperatures). This study addresses these challenges via a predictive model based on a graph-guided regularizer that simultaneously promotes similarity of predictive weights for highly correlated covariates and enforces sparsity in the covariate domain. This approach both decreases the effective dimensionality of the problem and identifies the most predictive features without specifying them a priori. We use large ensemble simulations from a climate model to construct this regularizer, reducing the structural uncertainty in the estimation. We apply the learned model to predict winter precipitation in the southwesternmore »United States using sea surface temperatures over the entire Pacific basin, and demonstrate its superiority compared to other regularization approaches and statistical models informed by known teleconnections. Our results highlight the potential to combine optimally the space–time structure of predictor variables learned from climate models with new graph-based regularizers to improve seasonal prediction.« less
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