skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Studer, Christoph"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Recent channel state information (CSI)-based positioning pipelines rely on deep neural networks (DNNs) in order to learn a mapping from estimated CSI to position. Since real-world communication transceivers suffer from hardware impairments, CSI-based positioning systems typically rely on features that are designed by hand. In this paper, we propose a CSI-based positioning pipeline that directly takes raw CSI measurements and learns features using a structured DNN in order to generate probability maps describing the likelihood of the transmitter being at pre-defined grid points. To further improve the positioning accuracy of moving user equipments, we propose to fuse a time-series of learned CSI features or a time-series of probability maps. To demonstrate the efficacy of our methods, we perform experiments with real-world indoor line-of-sight (LoS) and nonLoS channel measurements. We show that CSI feature learning and time-series fusion can reduce the mean distance error by up to 2.5× compared to the state-of-the-art.
  2. The nonlinearities of power amplifiers in massive MIMO arrays introduce unwanted spectral regrowth, which is typically avoided via digital predistortion at each amplifier. However, as the number of base station antennas scales up, so does the computational burden of per-antenna linearization. This work introduces a neural-network virtual digital predistortion (vDPD) scheme that operates before the linear precoder for OFDM-based massive MU-MIMO systems. By applying predistortion before the precoder, complexity scales primarily with the number of users. We can achieve comparable linearization along the user beams by training our neural network based on the memory polynomial, predistortion-per-antenna approach. We verify our algorithm through an exhaustive simulator that includes high-order amplifier nonlinearities, memory effects, and variance across the amplifier models.
  3. Beamspace processing is an emerging technique to reduce baseband complexity in massive multiuser (MU) multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems operating at millimeter-wave (mmWave) and terahertz frequencies. The high directionality of wave propagation at such high frequencies ensures that only a small number of transmission paths exist between user equipments and basestation (BS). In order to resolve the sparse nature of wave propagation, beamspace processing traditionally computes a spatial discrete Fourier transform (DFT) across a uniform linear antenna array at the BS where each DFT output is associated with a specific beam. In this paper, we study optimality conditions of the DFT for sparsity-based beamspace processing with idealistic mmWave channel models and realistic channels. To this end, we propose two algorithms that learn unitary beamspace transforms using an l4-norm-based sparsity measure, and we investigate their optimality theoretically and via simulations.
  4. Channel state information (CSI)-based fingerprinting via neural networks (NNs) is a promising approach to enable accurate indoor and outdoor positioning of user equipments (UEs), even under challenging propagation conditions. In this paper, we propose a positioning pipeline for wireless LAN MIMO-OFDM systems which uses uplink CSI measurements obtained from one or more unsynchronized access points (APs). For each AP receiver, novel features are first extracted from the CSI that are robust to system impairments arising in real-world transceivers. These features are the inputs to a NN that extracts a probability map indicating the likelihood of a UE being at a given grid point. The NN output is then fused across multiple APs to provide a final position estimate. We provide experimental results with real-world indoor measurements under line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS propagation conditions for an 80 MHz bandwidth IEEE 802.11ac system using a two-antenna transmit UE and two AP receivers each with four antennas. Our approach is shown to achieve centimeter-level median distance error, an order of magnitude improvement over a conventional baseline.
  5. We propose SParsity-ADaptive Equalization (SPADE), a novel approach to reduce the effective number of multiplications in sparse inner products by adaptively skipping multiplications that have little to no effect on the result. We apply SPADE to beamspace linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) spatial equalization in all-digital millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems. We propose a SPADE-based architecture that mutes insignificant multiplications to offer power savings. We use simulation results with line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS mmWave channel models to demonstrate that SPADE-LMMSE performs on par with state-of-the-art beamspace equalizers in terms of bit error-rate, while requiring significantly lower preprocessing complexity.
  6. Channel charting is an emerging technology that enables self-supervised pseudo-localization of user equipments by performing dimensionality reduction on large channel-state information (CSI) databases that are passively collected at infrastructure base stations or access points. In this paper, we introduce a new dimensionality reduction method specifically designed for channel charting using a novel split triplet loss, which utilizes physical information available during the CSI acquisition process. In addition, we propose a novel regularizer that exploits the physical concept of inertia, which significantly improves the quality of the learned channel charts. We provide an experimental verification of our methods using synthetic and real-world measured CSI datasets, and we demonstrate that our methods are able to outperform the state-of-the-art in channel charting based on the triplet loss.
  7. We propose blind estimators for the average noise power, receive signal power, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and mean-square error (MSE), suitable for multi-antenna millimeter wave (mmWave) wireless systems. The proposed estimators can be computed at low complexity and solely rely on beamspace sparsity, i.e., the fact that only a small number of dominant propagation paths exist in typical mmWave channels. Our estimators can be used (i) to quickly track some of the key quantities in multi-antenna mmWave systems while avoiding additional pilot overhead and (ii) to design efficient nonparametric algorithms that require such quantities. We provide a theoretical analysis of the proposed estimators, and we demonstrate their efficacy via synthetic experiments and using a nonparametric channel-vector denoising task with realistic multi-antenna mmWave channels.
  8. All-digital basestation (BS) architectures for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO), which equip each radio-frequency chain with dedicated data converters, have advantages in spectral efficiency, flexibility, and baseband-processing simplicity over hybrid analog-digital solutions. For all-digital architectures to be competitive with hybrid solutions in terms of power consumption, novel signal-processing methods and baseband architectures are necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate that adapting the resolution of the analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and spatial equalizer of an all-digital system to the communication scenario (e.g., the number of users, modulation scheme, and propagation conditions) enables orders-of-magnitude power savings for realistic mmWave channels. For example, for a 256-BS-antenna 16-user system supporting 1 GHz bandwidth, a traditional baseline architecture designed for a 64-user worst-case scenario would consume 23 W in 28 nm CMOS for the ADC array and the spatial equalizer, whereas a resolution-adaptive architecture is able to reduce the power consumption by 6.7×.
  9. Massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) wireless systems operating at millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies enable simultaneous wideband data transmission to a large number of users. In order to reduce the complexity of MU precoding in all-digital basestation architectures that equip each antenna element with a pair of data converters, we propose a two-stage precoding architecture which first generates a sparse precoding matrix in the beamspace domain, followed by an inverse fast Fourier transform that converts the result to the antenna domain. The sparse precoding matrix requires a small amount of multipliers and enables regular hardware architectures, which allows the design of hardware-efficient all-digital precoders. Simulation results demonstrate that our methods approach the error-rate performance of conventional Wiener filter precoding with more than 2x lower complexity.
  10. All-digital millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) receivers enable extreme data rates but require high power consumption. In order to reduce power consumption, this paper presents the first resolution-adaptive all-digital receiver ASIC that is able to adjust the resolution of the data-converters and baseband-processing engine to the instantaneous communication scenario. The scalable 32-antenna, 65 nm CMOS receiver occupies a total area of 8 mm 2 and integrates analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with programmable gain and resolution, beamspace channel estimation, and a resolution-adaptive processing-in-memory spatial equalizer. With 6-bit ADC samples and a 4-bit spatial equalizer, our ASIC achieves a throughput of 9.98 Gb/s while being at least 2× more energy-efficient than state-of-the-art designs.