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  1. Abstract Hydrated sulfates have been identified and studied in a wide variety of environments on Earth, Mars, and the icy satellites of the solar system. The subsurface presence of hydrous sulfur-bearing phases to any extent necessitates a better understanding of their thermodynamic and elastic properties at pressure. End-member experimental and computational data are lacking and are needed to accurately model hydrous, sulfur-bearing planetary interiors. In this work, high-pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were conducted on szomolnokite (FeSO4·H2O) up to ~83 and 24 GPa, respectively. This study finds a monoclinic-triclinic (C2/c to P1) structural phase transition occurring in szomolnokite between 5.0(1) and 6.6(1) GPa and a previously unknown triclinic-monoclinic (P1 to P21) structural transition occurring between 12.7(3) and 16.8(3) GPa. The high-pressure transition was identified by the appearance of distinct reflections in the XRD patterns that cannot be attributed to a second phase related to the dissociation of the P1 phase, and it is further characterized by increased H2O bonding within the structure. We fit third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state for each of the three phases identified in our data and refit published data to compare the elastic parameters of szomolnokite, kieserite (MgSO4·H2O), and blödite (Na2Mg(SO4)2·4H2O). At ambient pressure, szomolnokite is less compressible than blödite and more than kieserite, but by 7 GPa both szomolnokite and kieserite have approximately the same bulk modulus, while blödite’s remains lower than both phases up to 20 GPa. These results indicate the stability of szomolnokite’s high-pressure monoclinic phase and the retention of water within the structure up to pressures found in planetary deep interiors. 
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  2. Abstract The Fe3+/FeT ratios (Fe3+/[Fe2++Fe3+]) in minerals can be used to understand their crystallization and post-crystallization conditions. However, as natural minerals are often zoned and contain inclusions, bulk techniques, e.g., wet chemistry, may not provide accurate Fe3+/FeT values for a single phase of interest. We determined Fe3+/FeT ratios of amphiboles in different crystallographic orientations by single-crystal synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (SMS) in energy and time domain modes from four volcanic localities (Long Valley Caldera, Mount St. Helens, Lassen Volcanic Center, U.S.A., and Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines). The high spatial resolution (as low as 12 × 12 μm spot size) and standard-free nature of SMS allow the detection of intra-grain compositional heterogeneities in Fe3+/FeT with relatively low uncertainties. We combine SMS with major element compositions, water contents, and hydrogen isotope compositions to document the Fe3+/FeT ratios as a function of mineral composition and post-crystallization dehydrogenation. Spectra were fitted with up to five distinct sites: ferrous iron on M(1), M(2), M(3), and ferric iron on M(2) and M(3), consistent with X-ray diffraction studies on single crystals of amphibole. The Fe3+/FeT ratios range from 0.14 ± 0.03 (Long Valley Caldera), 0.51 to 0.63 ± 0.02 (representing intra-grain heterogeneities, Mount St. Helens) to 0.86 ± 0.03 (Lassen Volcanic Center). The latter grain experienced post-crystallization dehydrogenation, shown by its low water content (0.6 ± 0.05 wt%) and its elevated hydrogen isotope composition (δD = +25 ± 3‰ relative to SMOW). The Fe3+/FeT ratios of 0.62 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.01 of two Mt. Pinatubo grains correlate with high-Al2O3 cores and low-Al2O3 rims and smaller phenocrysts in the sample, respectively. This study shows that SMS is capable of distinguishing two different domains with dissimilar Fe3+/FeT values formed under different crystallization conditions, demonstrating that SMS in combination with major element, water, and hydrogen isotope compositions allows the interpretation of amphibole Fe3+/FeT ratios in the context of crystallization and post-crystallization processes. 
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  3. Abstract Isotopic fractionation has been linked to the lattice vibrations of materials through their phonon spectra. The Lamb-Mössbauer factor (fLM) has the potential to provide information about the lattice vibrations in materials. We constrain the temperature evolution of the fLM of γ- and ε-Fe at in situ high-P-T conditions between 1650 K and the melting point. We find that the vibrations of γ- and ε-Fe can be described using a quasiharmonic model with a pressure- and temperature-dependent Debye temperature computed from the measured fLM. From the Debye temperature, we derive the equilibrium isotopic fractionation β-factor of iron. Our results show that the quasiharmonic behavior of metallic iron would lower the value of lnβFe57/54 by 0.1‰ at 1600–2800 K and 50 GPa when compared to the extrapolation of room temperature nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering data. Our study suggests that anharmonicity may be more prevalent in Fe metal than in lower mantle minerals at 2800 K and 50 GPa, a relevant condition for the core formation, and the silicate mantle may be isotopically heavy in iron. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The high-pressure phases of oxyhydroxides (δ-AlOOH, ε-FeOOH, and their solid solution), candidate components of subducted slabs, have wide stability fields, thus potentially influencing volatile circulation and dynamics in the Earth’s lower mantle. Here, we report the elastic wave velocities of δ-(Al,Fe)OOH (Fe/(Al + Fe) = 0.13, δ-Fe13) to 79 GPa, determined by nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. At pressures below 20 GPa, a softening of the phonon spectra is observed. With increasing pressure up to the Fe 3+ spin crossover (~ 45 GPa), the Debye sound velocity ( v D ) increases. At higher pressures, the low spin δ-Fe13 is characterized by a pressure-invariant v D . Using the equation of state for the same sample, the shear-, compressional-, and bulk-velocities ( v S , v P , and v Φ ) are calculated and extrapolated to deep mantle conditions. The obtained velocity data show that δ-(Al,Fe)OOH may cause low- v Φ and low- v P anomalies in the shallow lower mantle. At deeper depths, we find that this hydrous phase reproduces the anti-correlation between v S and v Φ reported for the large low seismic velocity provinces, thus serving as a potential seismic signature of hydrous circulation in the lower mantle. 
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  5. Abstract. The formation of high-pressure oxyhydroxide phases spanned by the components AlOOH–FeOOH–MgSiO2(OH)2 in experiments suggests their capability to retain hydrogen in Earth's lower mantle. Understanding the vibrational properties of high-pressure phases provides the basis for assessing their thermal properties, which are required to compute phase diagrams and physical properties. Vibrational properties can be highly anisotropic, in particular for materials with crystal structures of low symmetry that contain directed structural groups or components. We used nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) to probe lattice vibrations that involve motions of 57Fe atoms in δ-(Al0.87Fe0.13)OOH single crystals. From the recorded single-crystal NRIXS spectra, we calculated projections of the partial phonon density of states along different crystallographic directions. To describe the anisotropy of central vibrational properties, we define and derive tensors for the partial phonon density of states, the Lamb–Mössbauer factor, the mean kinetic energy per vibrational mode, and the mean force constant of 57Fe atoms. We further show how the anisotropy of the Lamb–Mössbauer factor can be translated into anisotropic displacement parameters for 57Fe atoms and relate our findings on vibrational anisotropy to the crystal structure of δ-(Al,Fe)OOH. As a potential application of single-crystal NRIXS at high pressures, we discuss the evaluation of anisotropic thermal stresses in the context of elastic geobarometry for mineral inclusions. Our results on single crystals of δ-(Al,Fe)OOH demonstrate the sensitivity of NRIXS to vibrational anisotropy and provide an in-depth description of the vibrational behavior of Fe3+ cations in a crystal structure that may motivate future applications of NRIXS to study anisotropic vibrational properties of minerals. 
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  6. Abstract

    The transport of hydrogen into Earth's deep interior may have an impact on lower mantle dynamics as well as on the seismic signature of subducted material. Due to the stability of the hydrous phasesδ‐AlOOH (delta phase), MgSiO2(OH)2(phase H), andε‐FeOOH at high temperatures and pressures, their solid solutions may transport significant amounts of hydrogen as deep as the core‐mantle boundary. We have constrained the equation of state, including the effects of a spin crossover in the Fe3+atoms, of (Al, Fe)‐phase H: Al0.84Fe3+0.07Mg0.02Si0.06OOH, using powder X‐ray diffraction measurements to 125 GPa, supported by synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements on (Al, Fe)‐phase H andδ‐(Al, Fe)OOH. The changes in spin state of Fe3+in (Al, Fe)‐phase H results in a significant decrease in bulk sound velocity and occurs over a different pressure range (48–62 GPa) compared withδ‐(Al, Fe)OOH (32–40 GPa). Changes in axial compressibilities indicate a decrease in the compressibility of hydrogen bonds in (Al, Fe)‐phase H near 30 GPa, which may be associated with hydrogen bond symmetrization. The formation of (Al, Fe)‐phase H in subducted oceanic crust may contribute to scattering of seismic waves in the mid‐lower mantle (∼1,100–1,550 km). Accumulation of 1–4 wt.% (Al, Fe)‐phase H could reproduce some of the seismic signatures of large, low seismic‐velocity provinces. Our results suggest that changes in the electronic structure of phases in the (δ‐AlOOH)‐(MgSiO2(OH)2)‐(ε‐FeOOH) solid solution are sensitive to composition and that the presence of these phases in subducted oceanic crust could be seismically detectable throughout the lower mantle.

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