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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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  4. Abstract Background

    China’s terrestrial ecosystems play a pronounced role in the global carbon cycle. Here we combine spatially-explicit information on vegetation, soil, topography, climate and land use change with a process-based biogeochemistry model to quantify the responses of terrestrial carbon cycle in China during the 20th century.


    At a century scale, China’s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a carbon sink averaging at 96 Tg C yr− 1, with large inter-annual and decadal variabilities. The regional sink has been enhanced due to the rising temperature and CO2concentration, with a slight increase trend in carbon sink strength along with the enhanced net primary production in the century. The areas characterized by C source are simulated to extend in the west and north of the Hu Huanyong line, while the eastern and southern regions increase their area and intensity of C sink, particularly in the late 20th century. Forest ecosystems dominate the C sink in China and are responsible for about 64% of the total sink. On the century scale, the increase in carbon sinks in China’s terrestrial ecosystems is mainly contributed by rising CO2. Afforestation and reforestation promote an increase in terrestrial carbon uptake in China from 1950s. Although climate change has generally contributed to the increase of carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems in China, the positive effect of climate change has been diminishing in the last decades of the 20th century.


    This study focuses on the impacts of climate, CO2and land use change on the carbon cycle, and presents the potential trends of terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance in China at a century scale. While a slight increase in carbon sink strength benefits from the enhanced vegetation carbon uptake in China’s terrestrial ecosystems during the 20th century, the increase trend may diminish or even change to a decrease trend under future climate change.

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  5. The wireless signal propagates via multipath arising from different reflections and penetration between a transmitter and receiver. Extracting multipath profiles (e.g., delay and Doppler along each path) from received signals enables many important applications, such as channel prediction and crossband channel estimation (i.e., estimating the channel on a different frequency). The benefit of multipath estimation further increases with mobility since the channel in that case is less stable and more important to track. Yet high-speed mobility poses significant challenges to multipath estimation. In this paper, instead of using time-frequency domain channel representation, we leverage the delay-Doppler domain representation to accurately extract and predict multipath properties. Specifically, we use impulses in the delay-Doppler domain as pilots to estimate the multipath parameters and apply the multipath information to predicting wireless channels as an example application. Our design rationale is that mobility is more predictable than the wireless channel since mobility has inertial while the wireless channel is the outcome of a complicated interaction between mobility, multipath, and noise. We evaluate our approach via both acoustic and RF experiments, including vehicular experiments using USRP. Our results show that the estimated multipath matches the ground truth, and the resulting channel prediction is more accurate than the traditional channel prediction schemes. 
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  6. Testing network protocol implementations is difficult mainly because of the temporal uncertain nature of network events. To evaluate the worst-case performance or detect the bugs of a network protocol implementation using network simulators, we need to systematically simulate the behavior of the network protocol under all possible cases of the temporal uncertain events, which is time consuming. The recently proposed Symbolic Execution based Interval Branching (SEIB) simulates a group of uncertain cases together in a single simulation branch and thus is more efficient than brute force testing. In this article, we argue that the efficiency of SEIB could be further significantly improved by eliminating unnecessary comparisons of the event timestamps. Specifically, we summarize and present three general types of unnecessary comparisons when SEIB is applied to a general network simulator, and then correspondingly propose three novel techniques to eliminate them. Our extensive simulations show that our techniques can improve the efficiency of SEIB by several orders of magnitude, such as from days to minutes. 
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  7. Abstract

    Iron oxide is commonly found in natural or industrial glass compositions and can exist as ferrous (Fe2+) or ferric (Fe3+) species, with their ratios depending on glass composition, temperature, pressure and the redox reactions during the glass forming process. The iron redox ratio plays an important role on silicate glass structures and consequently various properties. This work aims to study the effect of iron oxide, and particularly the iron redox ratio, on the structures of borosilicate and boroaluminosilicate glasses using molecular dynamics simulations with newly developed iron potential parameters that are compatible with the borosilicate potentials. The results provide detailed cation coordination states of both iron species and the effect of redox ratio on boron coordination and other structural features. Particularly, competition for charge compensating modifier cations (such as Na+) among the fourfold‐coordinated cations such as B3+, Al3+, and Fe3+is investigated by calculating the cation–cation pair distribution functions and coordination preferential ratios. The results show that the trivalent ferric ions, with a shorter Fe–O bond distance and better defined first coordiation shell with mainly four‐fold coordination, act as a glass former whereas the divalent ferrous ions mainly play the role of glass modifier. The ferrous/ferric ratio (Fe2+/Fe3+) was found to affect the glass chemistry and hence glass properties by regulating the amount of four‐coordinated boron, the fraction of non‐briding oxygen and other features. The results are compared with available experimental data to gain insights of the complex structures and charge compensation schemes of the glass system.

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